Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Corneal ulcers are common causes of eye redness in dogs and cats. A corneal ulcer is an area of damage to the surface of the cornea, the clear structure at the front of the eye. These ulcers are painful but usually heal readily with treatment. Sometimes corneal ulcers develop complications that require surgery or other interventions.
Anything that scratches, hits, or irritates the surface of the eye can cause a corneal ulcer. Animals with low tear production are at increased risk for corneal ulcers because they have a low volume of tears to wash away irritants. These are some of the things that cause corneal ulcers:
Some animals have a defect of the corneal epithelium—the surface layer of corneal cells—that increases the risk of ulcers and keeps ulcers from healing. These slow-healing ulcers are called indolent ulcers. Corneal ulcers can become infected, threatening the animal’s vision. Deep corneal ulcers and wounds can penetrate all the way through the cornea and rupture the eye.
Eye medications that contain steroids (commonly used to treat conjunctivitis and other inflammatory eye conditions) prevent corneal ulcers from healing properly. Steroid-containing eye medications can also increase the risk of corneal infection.
The signs of eye discomfort are the same whether they are caused by a corneal ulcer or by another eye disorder. Typical signs are squinting, redness of the white part of the eye, and clear or cloudy eye drainage. The animal might rub the eye, and the cornea might look cloudy. Deep ulcers are sometimes visible without an ophthalmoscope and look like a dent or divot in the cornea. Superficial ulcers are usually not visible to the naked eye.
An animal with any of these signs should see a veterinarian right away. Although uncomplicated corneal ulcers are relatively minor, they are painful. Some of the conditions that cause the same signs are medical emergencies that require immediate treatment to save the eye.
Corneal ulcers are diagnosed with fluorescein dye applied to the eye. This green dye shows areas where the normal corneal epithelium is disrupted or missing. The eye is also examined under magnification to assess the depth and size of the ulcer, detect complications, and find the cause.
An uncomplicated ulcer is treated with eye medication to prevent infection and relieve pain. The animal might be fitted with a protective collar (the lampshade type) to prevent eye rubbing. The cause of the ulcer is also treated, if possible. The eye is rechecked with fluorescein dye after a few days to be sure the ulcer has fully healed.
Complicated ulcers are treated according to their cause and severity. Indolent ulcers are treated with a procedure to remove loose corneal epithelium. This procedure can often be performed in an awake animal with drops to numb the eye. Some indolent ulcers need a more extensive procedure with the animal under general anesthesia. Deep ulcers and wounds that might rupture the eye need surgical treatment by a veterinary ophthalmologist.
Image source: https://pixy.org/6427021/
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Dogs and cats can’t have pumpkin spice lattes or Halloween candy, but not all foods that we associate with fall are off the menu for our pets.
If you’d like to give treats to your pets, keep these precautions in mind:
Homemade and store-bought pet treats
Many recipes for homemade dog and cat treats are available. Making your own pet treats can be a fun family project and a great outlet for creativity. Kids might be surprised that their dog is so enthusiastic about a baked dog biscuit that tastes like cardboard to them. It’s a good reminder that pets don’t need the sugar, salt, and flavorings that humans prefer.
Pet food manufacturers know a marketing opportunity when they see one, so you can also find themed seasonal treats for sale. Store-bought pet treats are fine as long as they don’t contain a problem ingredient (always check labels).
Plain cooked or canned pumpkin is safe, and dogs and cats tend to like it. If you use canned pumpkin, be sure to get plain pumpkin and not pumpkin pie filling. The sugar and spices in pie filling can cause problems. Likewise, don’t give a pet a piece of pumpkin pie—and especially not sugar-free pie, which might contain xylitol.
White potatoes and sweet potatoes
Most dogs love potatoes of any type. Skip the butter, salt, and toppings, though: no loaded baked potatoes or sweet potato casserole for pets.
Other vegetables and fruits
Many vegetables and fruits (not grapes!) are safe, tasty, low-calorie treats for pets. As always, stick with plain, unseasoned items for animals. Avoid casseroles, which might contain problem ingredients like onion and fat. To avoid a choking risk, cut raw vegetables and fruits into small pieces and remove seeds, cores, and thick peels. These are some good options:
A bite of cooked lean poultry meat is safe for dogs and cats. Avoid giving pets skin, fat, bones, pan drippings, raw meat, or meat seasoned with onion.
Is popcorn a fall food? I think it depends on which Thanksgiving cartoons you watch. As with other foods, don’t add butter, salt, or seasonings to popcorn pieces you toss to your pets. Air-popped popcorn doesn’t have added fat, so it’s safer than oil-popped or microwaved popcorn for animals like schnauzers that have an increased risk for pancreatitis.
Photo by Amy Starr on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Osteoarthritis is very common in cats but often goes undetected. In most cats, joint pain doesn’t cause obvious signs like limping. Instead, it causes changes in mobility and behavior that can be misinterpreted as normal aging. Cat owners’ recognition of these changes is the first step in diagnosing and relieving joint pain.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease in which the protective cartilage in a joint wears down. Eventually the bones and other structures in the joint deteriorate, causing pain that worsens over time. Degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis can be caused by trauma or by problems with the structure of a joint, but often the cause is not known.
Senior cats are by far the most likely to develop osteoarthritis. Younger cats can be affected too. Osteoarthritis in cats most often involves the hips, elbows, knees, and hocks. Cats can also develop degenerative joint disease in the spine. Various studies have shown that between about 60% and 90% of cats have evidence of degenerative joint disease on radiographs (x-ray images).[1-3] Not all of these cats have pain, though, at least not at first.
In cats, signs of joint pain are subtle. Cats tend to hide signs of pain. Osteoarthritis often affects joints on both sides of cats’ bodies, so they don’t develop lameness—it’s hard to limp with both front legs or both rear legs at the same time. Signs of osteoarthritis in cats reflect their limited mobility, reduced activities of daily living, and general grumpiness caused by chronic pain:
The most important diagnostic tool is cat owners’ observations of signs of joint pain at home. Treatment is often started just on the basis of behavior changes consistent with pain. Cat owners can use questionnaires like the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (https://painfreecats.org/) to record and score their cats’ signs of pain. These assessment tools help veterinarians diagnose joint pain and are also very useful to track changes over time and monitor response to treatment.
Cats with signs of pain should receive a physical examination to be sure the signs are caused by joint or back pain and not by something else. A full orthopedic examination of a cat is challenging (sort of like examining an uncooperative bowl of jello that doesn’t tell you when it hurts and won’t trot on leash), but sometimes an examination reveals joint thickening or other physical changes of osteoarthritis. Radiographs can show evidence of degenerative joint disease but aren’t always needed. The decision to use imaging depends on the individual cat.
Never give a cat pain medication, including nonprescription over-the-counter remedies, without consulting a veterinarian. Some medications that are safe for people and dogs are very dangerous for cats.
In cats, joint pain is managed with a combination of nondrug and drug treatments. A multimodal approach (using several strategies) tailored to each cat’s pain level and living conditions is the best way to help relieve chronic pain in cats.
Nondrug treatments include weight management, adjunctive therapies like acupuncture, dietary supplements such as glucosamine, and environmental modifications like ramps, steps, soft bedding, and litter boxes with low sides. Drug options are more limited for cats than they are for dogs, but a number of drugs are available. A new injectable treatment for osteoarthritis pain avoids the need to give a cat a pill by mouth.
1. Lascelles BD, Henry JB 3rd, Brown J, et al. Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of radiographic degenerative joint disease in domesticated cats. Vet Surg. 2010;39(5):535-544. doi:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2010.00708.x
2. Slingerland LI, Hazewinkel HA, Meij BP, Picavet P, Voorhout G. Cross-sectional study of the prevalence and clinical features of osteoarthritis in 100 cats. Vet J. 2011;187(3):304-309. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.12.014
3. Gruen ME, Myers JAE, Lascelles BDX. Efficacy and safety of an anti-nerve growth factor antibody (frunevetmab) for the treatment of degenerative joint disease-associated chronic pain in cats: a multisite pilot field study. Front Vet Sci. 2021;8:610028. doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.610028
4. Bennett D, Zainal Ariffin SM, Johnston P. Osteoarthritis in the cat: 1. How common is it and how easy to recognise? J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14(1):65-75. doi:10.1177/1098612X11432828
Image source: https://pixy.org/6310117
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease; it spreads between animals and humans. In the United States, the chance that a person will catch monkeypox from a pet or give monkeypox to a pet is very low. Transmission between people and pets is possible, though, so the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed monkeypox guidance for pet owners.
This article summarizes information from the CDC and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and is current as of August 24, 2022. See these links for updates:
How Monkeypox Spreads
Monkeypox was first discovered in 1958 in monkeys and since then has been found in many animal species. Rodents and other small mammals (not monkeys) are thought to be the reservoir species that maintain the virus.
Human infection was first reported in 1970 in Africa, and monkeypox has occasionally appeared in other parts of the world. The United States had an outbreak in 2003 after pet prairie dogs were housed with infected animals from Ghana. The 2022 global monkeypox outbreak has involved at least 75 countries.
The monkeypox virus is related to the virus that causes smallpox. The virus infects the host through the respiratory tract, mouth, eyes, or broken skin. These are some of the ways people and animals are infected:
Most transmission during the 2022 outbreak has been through close, direct contact with an infected person.
Animals at Risk
One pet dog has contracted monkeypox, most likely from direct contact with its owners (this was the first reported case of human-to-animal transmission). Chinchillas, prairie dogs, and some types of rabbits, mice, and rats can be infected with the monkeypox virus. Many wild mammals are also susceptible to infection. Cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, and cows can be infected with other viruses in the same genus as monkeypox, but whether they can also be infected with the monkeypox virus is not yet known. The CDC says that it’s best to assume that any mammal can be infected. There have been no reports of infection in animals that are not mammals.
Signs of Monkeypox in Animals
These are some of the signs that infected animals have developed:
These symptoms are nonspecific. Many conditions that are much more common than monkeypox cause the same symptoms in animals. Diagnosing monkeypox requires laboratory tests.
Precautions for Pet Owners: CDC Guidance
If You Think Your Pet Has Monkeypox: CDC Guidance
Monkeypox. American Veterinary Medical Association. Accessed August 24, 2022. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/one-health/veterinarians-and-public-health/monkeypox
Monkeypox in animals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated August 17, 2022. Accessed August 24, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/veterinarian/monkeypox-in-animals.html
Monkeypox: pets in the home. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated August 17, 2022. Accessed August 24, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/specific-settings/pets-in-homes.html
Seang S, Burrel S, Todesco E, et al. Evidence of human-to-dog transmission of monkeypox virus. Lancet. 2022:S0140-6736(22)01487-8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01487-8
Image source: CDC
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Urinalysis is part of the diagnostic workup for many medical conditions, such as kidney disease, diabetes, and urinary tract infection. Pets that are urinating in unfortunate locations need urinalysis because inappropriate urination can be a symptom of a medical problem. Routine wellness checks, especially for senior animals, often include urinalysis. Urine is also collected for bacterial culture and other tests.
Urinalysis includes measurement of urine concentration, chemical analysis, and examination under a microscope. The results are affected by the age of the urine and the way the sample is collected. Urine begins to change soon after it’s voided, so urine samples need to be very fresh, ideally delivered to the veterinary clinic within an hour. The collection container needs to be completely clean, with no residue from food or cleaning solutions that can affect the chemical test results. Debris in a urine sample interferes with the chemical analysis and microscopic examination.
Urine can be collected either at home or at the veterinary clinic, depending on the reason the sample is needed and individual pet and household factors (such as the animal’s temperament and medical conditions, owner’s ability to collect urine, and distance to the clinic). Home urine collection is fine for most routine urinalysis, but check with your veterinarian to be sure it’s appropriate for your pet. Sometimes urine needs to be collected in a sterile manner at the veterinary clinic. In these cases, urine is usually collected by cystocentesis, a technique using a needle inserted directly into the bladder.
General Urine Collection Tips
Collecting Urine From Dogs
Collecting Urine From Cats
Photo by Tran Mau Tri Tam on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Pets need stool tests to screen for parasites or help find the cause of diarrhea and other digestive system problems. Collecting a stool sample at home is the least stressful option for the pet. The alternative is for someone at the veterinary clinic to use a loop to remove a little bit of stool from the rectum. This option yields a much smaller sample and can be unpleasant for the animal.
A fecal test for parasites involves mixing the stool sample in a flotation solution and either spinning it in a centrifuge or leaving it to sit in a vial for a certain amount of time. The material at the top of the solution is then removed to a microscope slide to look for parasite eggs that have floated to the surface. Sometimes a tiny bit of stool is smeared directly onto a microscope slide for examination. Fecal analysis can also include chemical tests. For all of these tests, the stool needs to be fresh and squishy enough to mix or smear.
The age and condition of a stool sample affect the results. Parasite eggs can dry out or hatch in old stool. Hard, dry feces is very difficult or impossible to prepare for testing. Stool that has been sitting outdoors for a while can contain fly eggs or larvae (maggots). Liquid diarrhea that’s soaked into paper or cloth can’t be mixed in solution to test for parasites.
Here’s how to collect a stool sample to get the most accurate results:
Photo by Lucas Ludwig on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Socializing young kittens and puppies means giving them positive experiences with things they’ll encounter throughout their lives. Building positive associations early in life helps animals feel comfortable with new people and new situations. Animals that are well socialized when they’re young are less likely to develop fear-based behavior problems (like aggression) that could put them at risk of being sent to a shelter or euthanized later on.
Sensitive Period for Socialization
For kittens, the window of opportunity for socialization is very early: from 3 weeks to about 7 to 9 weeks of age.[1,2] The sensitive period is the time when a young kitten’s brain is most receptive to socialization. During these early weeks, a kitten is exploring and learning, developing neurological pathways that will help the kitten learn in the future. After the sensitive period, brain development shifts; kittens don’t make positive associations as quickly or easily and they’re more likely to be afraid of new things. This is why it’s so difficult, if not impossible, to convert a semi-feral adult cat into a cat that can be happy living as a house pet.
You will have noticed that the sensitive socialization period for kittens is nearly closed by the time they’re typically adopted or purchased. Socialization needs to start with the person caring for the mother cat and newborns. When you adopt or buy a kitten, continue providing socialization (at the kitten’s comfort level and pace) to reinforce what the kitten has already learned.
The socialization process should always be positive. Don’t force kittens to interact with strangers or other animals if they’re shy, and don’t push them to be near things that scare them. Let them choose whether to interact. Give them room to walk away and let them hide if they want to. Use positive reinforcement (food or play) to encourage them to interact and build their confidence.
The following suggestions are adapted from the American Veterinary Medical Association. For more tips, check out the First Year of Life page on the Cat Friendly Homes website: https://catfriendly.com/life-stages/first-year-life/
Socializing Kittens Before Weaning
Socializing Kittens 8 to 12 Weeks Old
Older Kittens and Newly Adopted Adult Cats
1. Welfare implications of socialization of puppies and kittens. American Veterinary Medical Association. June 9, 2015. Accessed July 8, 2022. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-socialization-puppies-and-kittens
2. Todd Z. The sensitive period for socialization in puppies and kittens. Companion Animal Psychology. July 26, 2017. Accessed July 8, 2022. https://www.companionanimalpsychology.com/2017/07/the-sensitive-period-for-socialization.html
Photo by Haley Owens on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Essential oils are compounds that give plants their scent and taste. They are volatile compounds, meaning that they evaporate quickly and release chemicals into the air. Essential oils are in many products: aromatherapy products, home fragrances, flavorings, personal care items (like shampoo), “natural” remedies, insect repellents, and so forth.
Essential oils can sometimes be dangerous for pets, so be aware of the possible risks if you use these products. Whether an essential oil will cause a problem for an animal depends on the type of exposure, the concentration of oil, the animal’s individual risk factors, and the type of oil.
The following essential oils are known to be toxic to cats and dogs, according to the Pet Poison Helpline.[1,2]
How Animals Are Exposed
Essential oils enter the body through the skin, by swallowing, or by inhalation. Pets are most often exposed to toxic levels when owners apply an essential oil directly to the skin or fur in an attempt to treat a skin condition or repel fleas. The oil is absorbed into the body through the skin, and the animal is further exposed by licking oil from the fur. The risk increases with higher concentrations of essential oils. Products containing a high percentage of essential oil (approaching 100%) should never be applied directly to an animal’s skin or hair.
Diffusers spread the fragrance of essential oils into a space. Passive diffusers work through evaporation: they send the scent of the oil, but not the oil itself, into the air. Passive diffusers are mainly a risk if a pet knocks one over and licks the oil or gets oil on the fur. Active diffusers (like nebulizers and ultrasonic diffusers) send actual particles of oil into the air. Oil from active diffusers can get onto an animal’s skin or be inhaled into the lungs, so the animal can have direct exposure to the oil without touching the diffuser. Strong odors from either type of diffuser can cause respiratory tract irritation.
Animals at Risk
Cats are at higher risk from essential oils than dogs are. Cats lack a liver enzyme that helps eliminate essential oils from the body. Cats and other animals that groom themselves are also more likely to swallow oil that’s collected on the fur.
Animals with asthma or other respiratory problems are at higher risk than others from inhalation exposure from diffusers. Birds are very sensitive to respiratory irritants, so diffusers can also cause problems for them.
Depending on the type of oil and the amount of exposure, essential oil toxicity can cause vomiting, diarrhea, drooling, tremors, loss of balance, skin irritation, coughing, difficulty breathing, low heart rate, low body temperature, rear leg paralysis, and liver failure.
Animals with symptoms of essential oil poisoning need veterinary care and might need to be hospitalized for intensive care.
Using Essential Oils Safely
Use essential oils with caution if you have pets. These tips can help keep your pets safe:
1. Benson K. Essential oils and cats. Pet Poison Helpline. Accessed June 4, 2022. https://www.petpoisonhelpline.com/blog/essential-oils-cats/
2. Marshall J. Essential oils and dogs. Pet Poison Helpline. Accessed June 4, 2022. https://www.petpoisonhelpline.com/pet-safety-tips/essential-oils-dogs/
Photo by Kadarius Seegars on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Laboratory testing of blood, urine, and stool samples is routinely done for animals. Abnormalities often show up on lab tests before an animal has obvious symptoms. Even healthy pets need to be tested regularly for parasites. Well-animal tests can detect problems early and help veterinarians track changes over time. These are some of the reasons your veterinarian might recommend lab tests for your pet:
Complete Blood Count
A complete blood count measures the number, size, and shape of each type of cell in the blood.
Blood Chemistry Panel
Blood chemistry tests measure substances in the blood that indicate changes in organ function or other biological processes. Blood chemistry analysis is run as a panel of many individual tests. A chemistry panel doesn’t always give a diagnosis for a sick animal, but the results can help the veterinarian narrow down the list of possibilities. Veterinary laboratories offer many chemistry panels for different species and diagnostic needs. A small panel that’s sufficient for a young animal before routine surgery might not be appropriate for an ill animal or an older pet. These are a few of the tests commonly included in chemistry panels:
Analysis of the urine includes specific gravity (a measure of urine concentration), pH, chemistry results like glucose and protein levels, and microscopic evaluation for cells, crystals, and bacteria. Urinalysis can reveal urinary tract infection, support a diagnosis of diabetes, and help evaluate the function of the kidneys and other organs. A complete laboratory analysis—especially for a senior pet—should include urinalysis.
Parasites are very common in pet animals (unless they have received regular parasite prevention as recommended by a veterinarian). Many of the parasites that pets carry are contagious to people. At least once a year, pets should have a stool test for intestinal parasites like hookworms and roundworms. Dogs should also have a yearly blood test for heartworm disease.
Public domain image source: National Cancer Institute, Daniel Sone (photographer)
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The goals of first aid are to stabilize the animal for transport to a veterinary clinic, keep the animal’s injury from getting worse, and avoid harm to people handling the animal. First aid can save an animal’s life, but it does not replace care at a veterinary hospital.
Keep a first aid kit for your pets. Have contact information for animal poison control and nearby veterinary emergency clinics on hand. If possible, call the emergency clinic before you arrive with your pet.
Handling an injured animal
Bee stings/insect bites
If you can see the stinger in the animal’s skin, carefully remove it. Swelling of the face or throat that causes difficulty breathing is a medical emergency. Contact a veterinarian before giving any medication.
For external bleeding from a skin wound, apply gentle pressure with a gauze pad or clean cloth for at least a couple of minutes, until the blood clots. Do not use a tourniquet unless blood is spurting from a wound and the animal’s life is in danger (tourniquets can cause serious damage).
For thermal or electrical burns, remove the source of heat or electricity and apply cool compresses with a wet cloth. For chemical burns, flush the area with a large volume of water. Do not apply butter, ointment, or ice to the burn; seek veterinary care instead.
Coughing and reverse sneezing can be mistaken for choking. If the animal is truly choking on something in the throat, do a finger sweep of the mouth (only if you can do so without being bitten) and remove the object if possible. Be careful not to push the object farther down. If the animal collapses because of choking, try the Heimlich maneuver: lay the animal on its side and strike the rib cage a few times with the flat of your hand.
In most cases you won’t know if your pet really has a fracture until a veterinarian has taken radiographs. Minimize your pet’s movement as much as possible during transport. Don’t give pain medication unless a veterinarian has specifically recommended it. Don’t try to splint the limb; the splint might make things worse and you could be bitten in the attempt.
Heat stroke can happen quickly, especially if an animal is left in a car in warm weather. First aid should not delay immediate transport to a veterinary clinic. If you can’t transport the pet right away, move the pet into a cooler, shaded area. Apply towels soaked in cool water or pour cool water over the animal’s body, especially the neck, armpits, belly, and groin (between the back legs). Don’t use ice.
Not breathing, no heartbeat
Unfortunately, most animals with cardiac arrest die, even if they receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation. If you try resuscitation, it’s best to do it on the way to the veterinary clinic while someone else drives (no delay in transport). The first step is to check inside the mouth for an object blocking the airway. Then hold the mouth closed and breathe into the animal’s nose until the chest expands. Breathe every 4 to 6 seconds, checking after every few breaths to see if the animal can breathe on its own. After you have begun rescue breaths and if the animal still has no heartbeat, begin chest compressions. Lay the animal on its right side, place one hand under the ribs, and place the other hand on top of the ribs at the widest part of the rib cage (just behind the elbow). Push down on the ribs at least 1 inch, more for large dogs. For cats and other very small animals, cup the chest in one hand and squeeze the ribs between the thumb and fingers. Apply 80 to 120 compressions per minute for large dogs and 100 to 150 compressions per minute for cats and small dogs. Every 4 to 6 seconds, stop the chest compressions and give a breath. Continue until you have arrived at the clinic or the animal’s heart is beating and the animal is breathing.
If you think your pet has eaten or been exposed to a dangerous substance, call a veterinary clinic or an animal poison control hotline. Note the time of exposure, the amount you think your pet swallowed or was exposed to, and the symptoms. Keep the packaging material, if available, so the ingredients can be identified. If your pet vomits, take a sample of the vomit to the veterinary facility in case it’s needed for analysis. Don’t give anything to induce vomiting unless a veterinarian or animal poison control specialist has specifically recommended it.
If possible, time the seizure and note what the animal did before, during, and after the convulsions (for example, acting “spaced out,” paddling the legs, or urinating). Keep your hands away from the animal’s face and don’t try to hold the animal. Move objects that could hurt the animal out of the way. If the animal is having a seizure near stairs, the edge of a deck, or another drop, use a physical barrier to keep the animal from falling.
Snakebites can be very painful, so use a muzzle to protect yourself from being bitten by your pet. Take a photo of the snake if possible, but stay away from it! Don’t try to catch or kill the snake. Keep your pet as calm as you can while you travel to the veterinary clinic. Don’t apply a tourniquet or ice, and don’t try to draw venom out of the wound.
For more information
Photo by Oscar Sutton on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The contents of this blog are for information only and should not substitute for advice from a veterinarian who has examined the animal. All blog content is copyrighted by Mallard Creek Animal Hospital and may not be copied, reproduced, transmitted, or distributed without permission.