Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Holiday celebrations can be stressful for pets. Visitors, changes in routine, changes in food, unfamiliar scents and objects in the home, traveling, and noise can all cause anxiety for animals. Animals are more likely to bite when they’re scared or anxious, so minimizing sources of stress for your pets will help keep the holidays happy for everyone.
Limit Stressful Situations
To identify sources of stress for your pets, think like an animal. Animals feel safest when their routines and environment are predictable. Keep meal times, nap times, and exercise and play schedules about the same as usual. You might want to sleep late on a holiday (OK, the day after a holiday), but if your pets are used to a very consistent morning routine, this change could contribute to stress.
It’s normal and very human to want to include pets in our celebrations, but be careful not to think of your animals as little people in fur (or scale or feather) coats. They won’t feel left out if they’re not invited to a party. Most animals would rather be in a nice quiet room than in the middle of holiday hubbub. Think about your pets’ usual behavior around strangers and noise, and let them stay wherever they are most comfortable and safe.
Be aware of foods that aren’t safe for animals, especially if you have visitors who don’t know what your pets should and shouldn’t eat. Chocolate, xylitol sweetener, grapes, raisins, onion, garlic, and raw yeast dough are some of the foods that can be dangerous for animals. Limit or avoid table food for your pets; fatty or rich food can cause digestive upset. A holiday trip to the emergency veterinary clinic is not on anyone’s wish list.
Contact your veterinarian in advance if your pet is afraid of fireworks or has travel anxiety. Your veterinarian might recommend prescription or nonprescription antianxiety medication, depending on the symptoms. Plan ahead for this. Your pet might need a veterinary examination before medication can be prescribed.
Watch for Signs of Stress
The early signs of fear and anxiety can be subtle. Owners sometimes don’t realize their pets are in distress until the behavior escalates to aggression (an attempt to remove a perceived threat). Watch for any changes from the usual behavior. Some animals withdraw and hide in response to stress; others become hyperactive or clingy.
Signs of Anxiety in Dogs
Signs of Anxiety in Cats
Photo by Tyler Farmer on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Some bugs carry dangerous diseases or have venomous stings. But what about insects that our pets catch and swallow? Most are harmless, but a few are unsafe for pets. As warm weather arrives, keep an eye out for insects that can cause trouble if they’re eaten.
Pesticides and insecticides can also be toxic to pets. Keep these products out of your pets’ reach and use them only according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Dogs and cats are most likely to get a toxic dose if they’re sprayed with the product or eat a significant amount. A pet that eats a single pesticide-covered insect would ingest a little bit of the product, but the amount would probably be too small to cause a problem (call your veterinarian if you’re unsure or if your pet shows any symptoms).
Caterpillar hairs can be irritating to the touch, and some types of hairs release a toxin. Fur typically protects dogs’ and cats’ skin from the stings of caterpillar hairs. If a pet eats a caterpillar, though, the hairs can irritate the mouth and throat. Symptoms include drooling, pawing at the mouth, shaking the head, vomiting, and trouble swallowing. Processionary caterpillars (found in Europe, North Africa, and Asia) produce a toxin that causes an especially severe reaction.[1,2]
Fireflies are highly toxic to lizards, amphibians, and birds. Ingestion of a single firefly can kill a bearded dragon. Fireflies contain lucibufagins, which are chemicals that cause heart damage in susceptible species.
Asian Lady Beetles
Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis) look a lot like ladybugs, but unlike ladybugs they gather in large numbers and come inside houses in cold weather. As a defense mechanism, they secrete an irritating chemical compound. One published report describes a dog with oral trauma similar to chemical burns caused by 16 Asian lady beetles stuck to the roof of the mouth.
Blister beetles (family Meloidae) produce a toxin called cantharidin, an irritant that causes blistering on contact with the skin, mouth, or digestive tract. Cantharidin poisoning is most common in horses that eat alfalfa hay contaminated with blister beetles. Exposure can be fatal to horses. Other species, including dogs, cats, rabbits, and people, are also susceptible to cantharidin poisoning.
The insects known as walking sticks (order Phasmatodea) use camouflage as their main defense mechanism, but some of them also secrete a chemical that can burn the eyes or mouth. Anisomorpha buprestoides, a stick insect found in the southern United States, can aim this secretion directly at the face of a predator. Severe eye damage has been reported in humans and a dog.
Brachinus beetles are called bombardier beetles because they secrete a toxic chemical that they aim at predators in what is usually described as “explosive discharge.” This chemical irritant is released at a boiling temperature. Although I did not find any research reports of bombardier beetle poisoning in dogs or cats, I can’t imagine that eating one would be a comfortable experience.
1. Bad bugs, bad bugs: what you should do to keep your pets safe. ASPCA. August 1, 2018. Accessed March 5, 2021. https://www.aspca.org/news/bad-bugs-bad-bugs-what-you-should-do-keep-your-pets-safe
2. Fuzzy green poisoners: caterpillar toxicosis in pets. ASPCA Pro. Accessed March 5, 2021. https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/fuzzy-green-poisoners-caterpillar-toxicosis-pets
3. Treating firefly toxicosis in lizards. ASPCA Pro. Accessed March 5, 2021. https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/treating-firefly-toxicosis-lizards
4. Stocks IC, Lindsey DE. Acute corrosion of the oral mucosa in a dog due to ingestion of multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis: Coccinellidae). Toxicon. 2008;52(2):389-391. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.05.010
5. Schmitz DG. Overview of cantharidin poisoning. Merck Veterinary Manual. Updated June 2013. Accessed March 5, 2021. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/toxicology/cantharidin-poisoning/overview-of-cantharidin-poisoning
6. Thomas MC. Featured creatures: twostriped walkingstick. University of Florida Entomology & Nematology. Publication No. EENY-314. November 2003. Accessed March 5, 2021. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/walkingstick.htm
7. Schaller JC, Davidowitz G, Papaj DR, Smith RL, Carrière Y, Moore W. Molecular phylogeny, ecology and multispecies aggregation behaviour of bombardier beetles in Arizona. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0205192. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205192
Photo by Kazuky Akayashi
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Many over-the-counter (nonprescription) cold and flu medications contain ingredients that are toxic to dogs and cats. Keep all medications out of reach of your pets, and check with your veterinarian before giving a pet any medication—even remedies that are safe for children.
Cold medications are often sold as combination or multisymptom products containing more than 1 active ingredient. If your veterinarian recommends giving your pet a nonprescription medication, read the product label carefully to be sure it contains only the medication your veterinarian has approved.
Ingestion of some cold and flu products (especially oral decongestants, nasal sprays, eye drops, and pain relievers) is a medical emergency in animals. If your pet is exposed, contact a veterinary clinic or pet poison hotline:
Decongestants are often added to allergy medications and combination cold and cough remedies. If your veterinarian has recommended a nonprescription antihistamine for your pet, be sure that the product you use does not contain a decongestant. Look for label wording like congestion, stuffy nose, runny nose, multisymptom, or sinus pressure; these probably mean that the product includes a decongestant. Names of products containing decongestants might end in D (for example, Claritin-D and Mucinex D) or PE (as in Sudafed PE).
Pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine are the most common oral (by-mouth) decongestants. Both are dangerous for animals. In the United States, pseudoephedrine is sold without a prescription but with restrictions: it’s sold only in limited quantities, is usually kept behind the pharmacy counter or in a locked cabinet, and requires that the buyer show identification. If you’re not sure of the ingredients of your cold medication, knowing whether you took it from an open shelf or had to ask the pharmacist for it will help you figure out whether it is likely to contain pseudoephedrine.
Pseudoephedrine stimulates the cardiovascular system and certain nervous system pathways. It reduces nasal congestion by shrinking tiny blood vessels in the nose. It has a very narrow margin of safety in animals, meaning that a small dose can have serious consequences for a dog or cat. Symptoms of pseudoephedrine toxicity include the following:
The time of symptom onset depends on the formulation. With immediate-release products, symptoms can begin within minutes of ingestion. With extended-release products, symptoms might not appear for several hours.
Phenylephrine is an ingredient in oral cold remedies, hemorrhoid creams, nasal sprays, and some eye drops. Animals are exposed by swallowing the product. The most common symptom is vomiting; other symptoms are similar to those of pseudoephedrine toxicity. Phenylephrine is not as toxic as pseudoephedrine at low doses.
Nasal Sprays and Eye Drops
Oxymetazoline, tetrahydrozoline, naphazoline, and xylometazoline are imidazolines, a class of decongestant used in nasal sprays and eye drops (examples are Afrin and Visine). Animals—usually dogs—who chew the bottle and ingest the liquid can develop vomiting, lethargy, incoordination, slow heart rate, tremors, and coma. Imidazoline ingestion can be fatal.
Some nasal sprays contain xylitol, a sweetener that is safe for humans but toxic to pets. Plain saline nasal rinses with no ingredients other than water and salt should be safe if accidentally ingested, but don’t squirt them up your pet’s nose.
Combination cold and flu products commonly contain pain relievers, most of which are unsafe for dogs and cats. Acetaminophen is extremely toxic to cats even at low doses. It causes liver failure, damage to hemoglobin in red blood cells, and death. It can also cause liver damage in dogs. Ibuprofen and naproxen are in a class of pain relievers called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In dogs and cats, these medications can cause stomach ulcers, digestive tract bleeding, kidney damage, and liver damage.
Cough Suppressants and Cough Drops
Dextromethorphan is an antitussive, or cough suppressant, included in many cough remedies and combination cold and flu products. Animals who ingest dextromethorphan can develop vomiting, lethargy, rapid heart rate, and seizures.
Potentially toxic ingredients in cough drops include xylitol, which causes a dangerous drop in blood sugar in dogs, and benzocaine, which can cause upset stomach and possibly damage to red blood cells.
In high enough doses, zinc can damage red blood cells. Essential oils like menthol, camphor, and eucalyptus oil can cause skin reactions if applied topically. If swallowed or absorbed through the skin, these oils can cause symptoms ranging from vomiting to nervous system problems.
1. Pseudoephedrine toxicity in pets. ASPCApro. Accessed January 9, 2021. https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/pseudoephedrine-toxicity-pets
2. Wegenast C. Toxicology brief: phenylephrine ingestion in dogs: what's the harm? DVM360. November 1, 2012. Accessed January 9, 2021. https://www.dvm360.com/view/toxicology-brief-phenylephrine-ingestion-dogs-whats-harm
3. Imidazoline. Pet Poison Helpline. Accessed January 9, 2021. https://www.petpoisonhelpline.com/poison/imidazoline/
4. Dextromethorphan ingestion in pets. ASPCApro. Accessed January 9, 2021. https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/dextromethorphan-ingestion-pets
Photo by Shlomi Platzman
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is common in dogs and cats. Although some cases are relatively mild, pancreatitis is painful and can cause severe disease and even death. Pancreatitis can be triggered by eating a high-fat meal or table scraps, so be very cautious about sharing holiday food with your pets.
Pancreatitis is categorized as acute (a short course of disease that can be reversed) or chronic (long-term disease caused by permanent damage to pancreatic cells). These categories can overlap. Animals with repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can develop chronic pancreatitis, and animals with chronic pancreatitis can have flares of acute disease. In cats, the chronic form is more common than the acute form.
The pancreas, which is located near the stomach and small intestine, produces digestive enzymes and insulin. Because of the anatomic location and functions of the pancreas, pancreatic disease doesn’t always happen in isolation. Diseases of the liver, bile duct, and small intestine affect the pancreas and vice versa. In cats, simultaneous inflammation of the liver, small intestine, and pancreas is called triaditis. Chronic pancreatitis is associated with diabetes mellitus and deficiency of digestive enzymes.
The cause of pancreatitis in dogs and cats is often not found. However, some risk factors make pancreatitis more likely:
The symptoms of pancreatitis vary according to disease severity and are not specific; many disorders can cause the same symptoms. Symptoms are usually more severe with acute pancreatitis than with chronic pancreatitis. Other disorders that accompany pancreatitis also contribute to the symptoms.
These are some of the symptoms of acute pancreatitis:
The symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are often vague and can be mistaken for other disorders. Animals with chronic pancreatitis might have these symptoms:
Diagnosing pancreatitis can be tricky, especially in animals with vague symptoms or multiple organ systems affected. Baseline bloodwork and urinalysis don’t necessarily give a diagnosis but help assess the patient’s overall health and reveal associated disorders. A diagnosis of pancreatitis is typically made with a combination of blood tests for pancreas-specific factors (like serum amylase, serum lipase, canine and feline pancreas-specific lipase, pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity) and ultrasonography of the abdomen.
Animals with acute pancreatitis usually need to stay in the hospital for at least a few days. Treatment can include intravenous fluids, pain management, antiemetics to control vomiting, tube feeding, possibly antibiotics, treatment of the underlying cause (if known), and treatment of associated disorders. Patients are monitored closely for complications like organ failure and blood clotting disorders. Animals with recurrent acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, or triaditis might need long-term diet modification.[2,5]
The prognosis depends on disease severity. Patients with mild disease tend to recover well, but the prognosis is guarded for animals with severe pancreatitis.
1. Watson P. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats: definitions and pathophysiology. J Small Anim Pract. 2015;56(1):3-12. doi:10.1111/jsap.12293
2. Simpson KW. Pancreatitis and triaditis in cats: causes and treatment. J Small Anim Pract. 2015;56(1):40-49. doi:10.1111/jsap.12313
3. Lem KY, Fosgate GT, Norby B, Steiner JM. Associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233(9):1425-1431. doi:10.2460/javma.233.9.1425
4. Xenoulis PG. Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract. 2015;56(1):13-26. doi:10.1111/jsap.12274
5. Steiner JM. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats. Merck Veterinary Manual. Updated October 2020. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/digestive-system/the-exocrine-pancreas/pancreatitis-in-dogs-and-cats
Photo by Sebastian Coman Travel
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Happy holidays! Keep your cat safe from these common household dangers when you’re preparing for the season.
Ribbons, tinsel, yarn, twine, fishing line, thread, garland, and other long strings are hazardous if swallowed. A string in the digestive tract can cause a linear foreign body obstruction. Cats with digestive tract obstruction need surgery to prevent serious damage to the intestines. Keep this danger in mind when choosing holiday decorations. Wide ribbons might be less of a swallowing hazard than narrow ribbons.
Tinsel is especially attractive to cats because it’s sparkly, so a long string of tinsel is an intestinal obstruction waiting to happen. Watch out for glass ornaments that can cut paws if they mysteriously land on the floor and break. Expect that your cats will treat all glittery and shiny items as cat toys and decorate accordingly. Wood and fabric ornaments are safer than glass ornaments in a household with cats.
With Christmas trees, the goal is to prevent damage to your cat and damage to property. Christmas tree dangers to cats include tree water (might contain preservatives or pesticides), swallowed pine needles, broken or swallowed ornaments, electrical wires, and being hit by a falling tree.
If your cat ignores the tree, you might not need to do anything more than keep breakable ornaments on high branches, cat-safe (or no) ornaments on low branches, and a close eye on your cat when he’s in the room with the tree. But if your cat is young, curious, adventurous, or new to your home, assume he’ll want to climb the Christmas tree.
The safest approach is to either not have a tree or to close the door and keep the cat out of the room. If your cat has access to the tree, use a sturdy base and secure the tree to the ceiling or walls so it can’t tip over. Don’t use any breakable ornaments if your cat is a climber. To prevent electrocution, keep the tree lights unplugged when you’re not watching your cat.
Try giving your cat a more attractive alternative, like a high perch and new toys or a cat Christmas tree (maybe made from a cardboard box). You could try bitter orange spray or an unappealing floor covering around the tree (aluminum foil, adhesive paper with the sticky side up, or a nonslip rug gripper with the pointy side up), but don’t count on deterrents like these to keep your cat out of the tree.
Lilies are among the most dangerous plants for cats; don’t bring them in your house at all if you have a cat. Holly, mistletoe, and amaryllis are toxic to cats to some degree. Poinsettias are mildly toxic to cats.
Flames and Electrical Wires
Cats like to push things off tables and are curious about new items in their living space. Don’t leave a cat alone with lit candles, which are a fire hazard if knocked over. Cats will also chew on electrical cords, so cover the cords and keep lights and other electrical decor unplugged when not in use.
Onions, leeks, chives, and garlic are toxic to cats. Chocolate, alcohol, raw bread dough, fatty food, raw eggs, raw meat, and bones are also dangerous for cats. See the blog post on human foods that are toxic to pets for more information. If you’d like to share some of your holiday meal with your cat, see the post on Thanksgiving foods that are safe for dogs and cats.
Photo by Jessica Lewis
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Make plans now to keep your pets safe over the July 4 weekend. Large fireworks shows might be canceled this year, but fireworks stores across the state line are open and home fireworks pose risks for pets.
Fireworks in neighborhoods are traumatic for many animals. The loud bangs are random and sporadic, so they’re hard to predict. For pets at home, neighborhood fireworks are louder than big fireworks shows because they’re closer. And fireworks set off by individuals tend to continue for several hours, often over a few days, instead of being limited to the duration of a fireworks show.
Animals startled by loud noises can bolt unexpectedly. Take these steps to keep your pets from getting lost and increase the chance of finding them if they run off:
Noise phobia, or irrational fear of certain noises, is common in dogs and is often triggered by fireworks. Noise phobia goes further than just disliking loud sounds. Animals with noise phobia have reactions that range from hiding under the bed to destroying parts of the house. Some symptoms, like seeking attention, are subtle. This anxiety condition often gets worse with time and can seriously affect an animal’s safety and welfare.
If you think your pet might have noise phobia, call your veterinarian. Your pet might need a combination of short-term treatment (like antianxiety medication) that you can use right away and long-term behavior modification measures. The sooner you address noise phobia, the better it will be for your pet.
Various therapies have been used to help dogs with noise phobia. Some work better than others. A survey published in May 2020 asked dog owners how they managed their dogs’ fireworks fears and how well various techniques worked. The most effective measures, indicated by at least 69% of owners, were counterconditioning (giving the dog something desirable when the noise occurred), prescription antianxiety medication, and relaxation training. Pressure vests and desensitization using fireworks recordings were less effective. Pheromones, nutraceuticals, and herbal remedies worked for the fewest dogs.
Fireworks contain hazardous substances like fuel, oxidizers (for combustion), and heavy metals. If swallowed, these chemicals can cause vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, liver disease, or kidney disease. Lit fireworks and smoke are obviously a risk to animals’ eyes and skin. Keep your pets completely away from new and used fireworks:
1. Riemer S. Effectiveness of treatments for firework fears in dogs. J Vet Behav. 2020;37:61-70.
2. Fireworks. Pet Poison Helpline. Accessed June 19, 2020. https://www.petpoisonhelpline.com/poison/fireworks/
Photo by Andy Thrasher
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
It can be fun to choose cute winter wear for your dog (and we love seeing the adorable sweaters on dogs coming into the clinic!). But does your dog really need winter clothing? It depends.
Dogs do not all have the same tolerance for low temperatures. Dogs in the same household might have completely different attitudes about going outdoors in winter, so pay attention to your dog’s preferences and use common sense.
Which Dogs Need Winter Clothing?
Outdoor temperature, weather conditions, length of time outdoors, and level of activity (a leisurely stroll around the block versus a 5-mile run) all affect a dog’s need for extra protection. Also take the following dog-specific factors into account.
Type of Fur
Some dogs’ natural coats are like a puffer jacket; others are more akin to a thin T-shirt. The length of the hair isn’t the only consideration. Dogs with thick undercoats, or double coats, are better protected against the cold than those with single coats. Golden retrievers and Maltese both have long hair, but goldens stay warmer—and shed a lot more—because of their double coat. Goldens are also bigger than Maltese, which brings us to the next point.
Size of the Dog
In general, small dogs like Chihuahuas and toy poodles don’t handle cold weather as well as large dogs like retrievers and shepherds. This partly depends on the individual dog, but little dogs lose heat more easily than big dogs because their body surface area is higher relative to their weight.
Age and Health Status
Young puppies, senior dogs, and dogs with health problems (arthritis, endocrine disorders like hypothyroidism, and so forth) have a harder time maintaining their body temperature in cold weather than healthy adult dogs do.
Breeds that were developed to live in cold climates (like Newfoundlands and Bernese mountain dogs) are obviously better equipped for winter weather than greyhounds and the hairless breeds. Some breeds (and individual dogs) are just better acclimated to cold weather than others.
Signs That Your Dog Needs a Coat
Watch your dog for signs of discomfort in the cold:
If your dog has significant shivering or reluctance to move that doesn’t improve soon after coming inside to warm up, take him to a veterinary clinic to be checked for hypothermia. (Hypothermia is unlikely to happen in dogs in the Charlotte area who are outdoors under direct supervision for a reasonable length of time. It can affect dogs left outside in cold weather without adequate shelter.) Clothing is not a substitute for warm shelter.
Which Dogs Shouldn’t Wear Clothes?
Dogs can overheat if they’re wearing a coat they don’t need. There’s a reason sled dogs don’t wear parkas while they’re running the Iditarod. These dogs don’t need to be wearing clothes:
How to Choose Dog Clothing
Sweaters, jackets, and coats should fit closely enough not to drag on the ground or become tangled around the dog’s legs. However, clothing shouldn’t be tight around the neck or restrict the dog’s movement. Clothing should have no loose hanging bits that could get snagged on something or that the dog might chew. Dog clothing shouldn’t get in the way of urination and defecation (most dog coats are open under the belly and tail). Choose materials that are appropriate for the weather and easy to clean. And if your dog hates his clothes, don’t force the issue. Introduce new clothing gradually and try different materials and fits if you need to.
See more cold weather safety tips here: https://www.mallardcreekvet.com/dr-waldens-blog/cold-weather-safety-for-pets.
Photo by Rebecca Johnson, DVM
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
It’s tempting to share some of the Thanksgiving feast with our pets. Not all human food is safe for dogs and cats, though. The best way to avoid a holiday trip to the emergency clinic is to give pets their usual food and keep table food out of their reach. If you (or your guests) do want to give your pets a little bit of holiday food, though, here are some suggestions that are fine for most dogs and cats.
Keep in mind a few rules of thumb. Don’t give them anything that’s dangerous to dogs and cats: fatty food, bones, raw meat, raw eggs, raisins, grapes, currants, onions, garlic, leeks, raw yeast dough, macadamia nuts, chocolate, and the sugar substitute xylitol. For more, see the posts on Thanksgiving safety for pets and human foods that are toxic to pets.
Unseasoned single-ingredient foods are safer than multiple-ingredient dishes because they’re less likely to contain hidden dangers like onion. Moderation is key; too much of any food can upset a pet’s stomach. And remember that these suggestions don’t apply to pets with food allergies or digestive problems.
A bite of cooked skinless, boneless turkey meat is safe for most dogs and cats. Keep portion size in mind; a 10-lb dog or cat does not need the same amount of turkey that a person would eat. Take these precautions:
Defatted turkey or chicken broth
Pan drippings and gravy are too high in fat for dogs and cats. But a spoonful or two of defatted broth is usually fine for dogs. Don’t give broth to your cat unless you can be absolutely sure it wasn’t made with onions, leeks, shallots, or garlic; try tuna juice instead.
Vegetables and fruits
Dogs like vegetables more than you might think. Avoid grapes, raisins, currants, veggies cooked with fat or butter, and vegetable casseroles (that green bean casserole with the crispy onions on top? no). Stick with plain veggies and fruits, either raw or cooked without seasoning. My own dogs highly recommend all of these:
A small piece of bread, cornbread, or biscuit is generally safe for dogs and cats. Keep unbaked dough out of their reach; raw yeast dough can cause ethanol poisoning. Watch for added fats and seasonings (no onion focaccia or garlic bread). A bite of plain bread is safer than dressing or stuffing, which is likely to contain fat, onion, and possibly raisins or currants. Also avoid store-bought baked goods that might contain artificial sweeteners like xylitol.
For pets eating prescription or limited-ingredient diets
The best approach for pets with medical needs or food allergies is to close them in a room away from the kitchen and dining area. Guests might not realize that these pets have dietary restrictions. If your pet is eating a special diet and you’d like to give treats, ask your veterinarian for safe options. Some prescription diet manufacturers have developed treats that are compatible with their diets.
Photo by Charles 🇵🇭
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Toxins from algae in a pond killed 3 dogs in Wilmington earlier this month. The same type of algae has been found in a public park pond in Charlotte. The only way to know if algae is harmful is by testing the water in a laboratory, so for safety, keep your dog away from all scummy or discolored water.
Harmful Algal Blooms
Algae are tiny plantlike organisms that live in water. Some algae produce toxins that cause serious illness. Under certain conditions, algae grow quickly into collections called algal blooms. Algal blooms are most likely to form in warm water that is high in nutrients like nitrogen. Hot weather and stagnant water increase the chance of algal growth.
Algal blooms can form in either fresh or salt water. The most common type of harmful algae in fresh water is cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae. Another type of algae causes red tide in salt water.
Avoid water with signs of potentially harmful algal blooms:
Symptoms of Exposure
People and animals can be exposed to algal toxins through skin contact with contaminated water, by drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food (like fish), or by inhaling water droplets in windblown spray. Dogs are typically exposed when they play or wade at the edges of bodies of water with algal blooms.
Not all algal blooms are toxic. But with some types of algae, exposure to only a small amount of toxin can be fatal within hours or days. Algal toxins can damage the liver, nervous system, kidneys, and digestive tract. Symptoms depend on the type of toxin and the amount of exposure and include the following:
What to Do if Your Pet Is Exposed
If your dog comes in contact with questionable fresh or salt water, bathe or at least rinse him off with clean (tap) water right away, before he licks his fur. Take precautions to avoid exposure to yourself; wear gloves or wash your hands after rinsing your dog.
Take your dog to a veterinary clinic if she has swallowed water containing algae or has licked her fur after wading in water with an algal bloom. Symptoms of toxin exposure constitute a medical emergency, so seek veterinary care immediately if your dog is vomiting or stumbling after water contact.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the NC Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommend these precautions:
Cyanobacteria: Protecting Children & Dogs (NCDHHS): https://epi.dph.ncdhhs.gov/oee/algae/protect.html
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB)-Associated Illness (CDC): https://www.cdc.gov/habs/index.html
Photo source: https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/harmful-algal-blooms-6
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Dog urine can turn grass yellow or brown. Lots of other things can also cause grass to die or change color, so before you blame your dog, make sure the grass spots really are caused by dog urine (you might need to consult a lawn care specialist).
Why Does Urine Discolor Grass?
Dog urine contains nitrogen, which is produced by the body’s normal breakdown of protein. Nitrogen helps plants grow, but too much nitrogen damages plants, causing “burn” or “scald.” Fertilizers are designed to deliver the right amount of nitrogen at specific application rates. A small amount of nitrogen from dog urine can act as a fertilizer, so a patch of urine-scalded lawn might be surrounded by a ring of healthy green grass where the urine was less concentrated.
Urine also contains salts and is often a bit acidic. Salts and acid can damage plants, but nitrogen is the main reason that urine discolors grass.
Female dogs may be more likely than male dogs to cause urine spots on grass because they usually urinate large amounts in one location. Male dogs tend to urinate small volumes in lots of different places. But male dogs who urinate a lot in one area can also cause lawn burn.
How to Prevent Urine Spots on Grass
If urine spots on the lawn are new for your dog, consult your veterinarian. Your dog might need a urinalysis to check for a medical problem, like a urinary tract infection, that has changed the properties of the urine.
Don’t treat a healthy dog for a grass problem. Don’t change to a low-protein diet or feed any supplements or foods that claim to change the urine chemistry or pH (unless your veterinarian has diagnosed a medical condition that needs these treatments). These products could be risky for a dog who doesn’t need them and probably won’t solve the grass discoloration anyway.
These methods are safe for your dog:
Photo by 78Li
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The contents of this blog are for information only and should not substitute for advice from a veterinarian who has examined the animal. All blog content is copyrighted by Mallard Creek Animal Hospital and may not be copied, reproduced, transmitted, or distributed without permission.