Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Urinalysis is part of the diagnostic workup for many medical conditions, such as kidney disease, diabetes, and urinary tract infection. Pets that are urinating in unfortunate locations need urinalysis because inappropriate urination can be a symptom of a medical problem. Routine wellness checks, especially for senior animals, often include urinalysis. Urine is also collected for bacterial culture and other tests.
Urinalysis includes measurement of urine concentration, chemical analysis, and examination under a microscope. The results are affected by the age of the urine and the way the sample is collected. Urine begins to change soon after it’s voided, so urine samples need to be very fresh, ideally delivered to the veterinary clinic within an hour. The collection container needs to be completely clean, with no residue from food or cleaning solutions that can affect the chemical test results. Debris in a urine sample interferes with the chemical analysis and microscopic examination.
Urine can be collected either at home or at the veterinary clinic, depending on the reason the sample is needed and individual pet and household factors (such as the animal’s temperament and medical conditions, owner’s ability to collect urine, and distance to the clinic). Home urine collection is fine for most routine urinalysis, but check with your veterinarian to be sure it’s appropriate for your pet. Sometimes urine needs to be collected in a sterile manner at the veterinary clinic. In these cases, urine is usually collected by cystocentesis, a technique using a needle inserted directly into the bladder.
General Urine Collection Tips
Collecting Urine From Dogs
Collecting Urine From Cats
Photo by Tran Mau Tri Tam on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Pets need stool tests to screen for parasites or help find the cause of diarrhea and other digestive system problems. Collecting a stool sample at home is the least stressful option for the pet. The alternative is for someone at the veterinary clinic to use a loop to remove a little bit of stool from the rectum. This option yields a much smaller sample and can be unpleasant for the animal.
A fecal test for parasites involves mixing the stool sample in a flotation solution and either spinning it in a centrifuge or leaving it to sit in a vial for a certain amount of time. The material at the top of the solution is then removed to a microscope slide to look for parasite eggs that have floated to the surface. Sometimes a tiny bit of stool is smeared directly onto a microscope slide for examination. Fecal analysis can also include chemical tests. For all of these tests, the stool needs to be fresh and squishy enough to mix or smear.
The age and condition of a stool sample affect the results. Parasite eggs can dry out or hatch in old stool. Hard, dry feces is very difficult or impossible to prepare for testing. Stool that has been sitting outdoors for a while can contain fly eggs or larvae (maggots). Liquid diarrhea that’s soaked into paper or cloth can’t be mixed in solution to test for parasites.
Here’s how to collect a stool sample to get the most accurate results:
Photo by Lucas Ludwig on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Socializing young kittens and puppies means giving them positive experiences with things they’ll encounter throughout their lives. Building positive associations early in life helps animals feel comfortable with new people and new situations. Animals that are well socialized when they’re young are less likely to develop fear-based behavior problems (like aggression) that could put them at risk of being sent to a shelter or euthanized later on.
Sensitive Period for Socialization
For kittens, the window of opportunity for socialization is very early: from 3 weeks to about 7 to 9 weeks of age.[1,2] The sensitive period is the time when a young kitten’s brain is most receptive to socialization. During these early weeks, a kitten is exploring and learning, developing neurological pathways that will help the kitten learn in the future. After the sensitive period, brain development shifts; kittens don’t make positive associations as quickly or easily and they’re more likely to be afraid of new things. This is why it’s so difficult, if not impossible, to convert a semi-feral adult cat into a cat that can be happy living as a house pet.
You will have noticed that the sensitive socialization period for kittens is nearly closed by the time they’re typically adopted or purchased. Socialization needs to start with the person caring for the mother cat and newborns. When you adopt or buy a kitten, continue providing socialization (at the kitten’s comfort level and pace) to reinforce what the kitten has already learned.
The socialization process should always be positive. Don’t force kittens to interact with strangers or other animals if they’re shy, and don’t push them to be near things that scare them. Let them choose whether to interact. Give them room to walk away and let them hide if they want to. Use positive reinforcement (food or play) to encourage them to interact and build their confidence.
The following suggestions are adapted from the American Veterinary Medical Association. For more tips, check out the First Year of Life page on the Cat Friendly Homes website: https://catfriendly.com/life-stages/first-year-life/
Socializing Kittens Before Weaning
Socializing Kittens 8 to 12 Weeks Old
Older Kittens and Newly Adopted Adult Cats
1. Welfare implications of socialization of puppies and kittens. American Veterinary Medical Association. June 9, 2015. Accessed July 8, 2022. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-socialization-puppies-and-kittens
2. Todd Z. The sensitive period for socialization in puppies and kittens. Companion Animal Psychology. July 26, 2017. Accessed July 8, 2022. https://www.companionanimalpsychology.com/2017/07/the-sensitive-period-for-socialization.html
Photo by Haley Owens on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The Five Freedoms, which describe animals’ basic welfare needs, are a framework to guide animal care. The Five Freedoms were first developed for the care of livestock, but they apply to all animals under human care.
The Five Freedoms aren’t meant to be rigid, absolute standards; for example, it’s not biologically possible to completely eliminate hunger and thirst. The original Five Freedoms focused on reducing animals’ negative experiences. To reflect better understanding of animal welfare, the framework has been updated to include giving animals positive experiences in addition to limiting negative ones.
Meeting animals’ welfare needs helps keep them physically and mentally sound. When you’re caring for pet animals—whether your pets are dogs or frogs—keep the Five Freedoms in mind to be sure you’re giving them everything they need to stay healthy and happy.
Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
Animals need fresh water and a diet that is complete and balanced for their species and life stage. Animal welfare is enhanced (meaning that animals will be happier) if the eating experience is also enjoyable. For pets, this could mean adding variety to the diet or using food puzzles from time to time.
Freedom From Discomfort
At its most basic, freedom from discomfort means having shelter and a comfortable place to rest. This category can also include everything in an animal’s environment. How might you enrich your pet’s environment to promote comfort and enjoyment? Would your elderly indoor cat like a soft, easily accessible window seat to watch birds? Could your snake use another hide in the vivarium?
Freedom From Pain and Injury
Animals should have veterinary care to prevent and treat disease and injury. Caretakers can take other steps to promote health and prevent pain, such as providing appropriate physical activity and avoiding painful experiences.
Freedom to Express Normal Behavior
The original Five Freedoms specified giving animals sufficient space, proper facilities, and the right amount of company of the animal’s own kind. Animal caretakers can go far beyond these basic recommendations. Think about behavior that is normal for your pet’s species. Dogs chase things and cats sharpen claws, and they need appropriate outlets, not punishment, for these behaviors. The need for companionship depends on the species. Some animals (like guinea pigs) need to live with at least one other of their own species, and others do well living alone.
Freedom From Fear and Distress
Animals should not be kept in conditions that create anxiety and stress. Pet owners can also give their animals positive experiences to support their mental health.
To read more about the Five Freedoms and pets, check out these articles by Dr. Zazie Todd on the Companion Animal Psychology website:
What Are the Five Freedoms (and What Do They Mean to You?)
The Five Domains Model Aims to Help Animals Thrive
1. Farm Animal Welfare Council. Report on priorities for animal welfare research and development. May 1993. Accessed March 25, 2022. https://edepot.wur.nl/134980
2. Mellor DJ. Moving beyond the “five freedoms” by updating the “five provisions” and introducing aligned “animal welfare aims.” Animals (Basel). 2016;6(10):59. doi:10.3390/ani6100059
Photo by little plant on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Before bringing a plant into your home, be sure it’s safe for your pets. Some plants are so toxic they should never be kept in homes where animals live (the most hazardous are sago palms and, for cats, lilies). But many plants pose little danger to animals and are good choices for households with pets.
If you need to find out if a plant is safe, the list of toxic and nontoxic plants on the ASPCA Animal Poison Control website is an excellent resource: https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/toxic-and-non-toxic-plants.
You can search the list for specific plants, and you can also generate lists of plants that are toxic or not toxic for dogs, cats, or horses. Some toxic and nontoxic plants have very similar common names, so always check a plant’s scientific name.
“Toxic” is a relative term when it comes to plants. Plants listed as toxic might cause anything from mild mouth irritation to death. Even plants listed as nontoxic can cause nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea if they’re eaten. Plants listed as nontoxic should not cause life-threatening illness in animals.
These are a few of the houseplants that are not toxic to dogs and cats, according to ASPCA Animal Poison Control. Scientific names are from the ASPCA and the North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox (https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/).
African violet (Streptocarpus ionanthus)
American or baby rubber plant (Peperomia obtusifolia)
Always check the scientific names of plants called “rubber.” Baby rubber plants aren’t toxic to dogs and cats. Jade plants, sometimes called dwarf rubber or Chinese rubber plants (Crassula ovata), are toxic. Indian rubber plants (Ficus benjamina) are also toxic to dogs and cats.
Boston fern (Nephrolepis exalta)
Some ferns are safe and some aren’t. Boston fern isn’t toxic to dogs and cats, but asparagus fern (Asparagus densiflorus [Sprengeri group]) and some of the ferns that grow outdoors are. Fern palm is another name for sago palm (Cycas and Zamia species), one of the most dangerous plants to have anywhere near an animal.
Cast iron plant (Aspidistra elatior)
Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera species)
Christmas cactus isn’t toxic, but pencil cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli) irritates the mouth and stomach and can cause vomiting.
Gerbera daisy (Gerbera jamesonii)
Gerbera daisies are safe for dogs and cats. Some other daisy-like plants are listed as toxic; these include seaside daisy (Erigeron speciosus), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum species), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), and, not surprisingly, poison daisy/mayweed (Eclipta prostrata).
Hens and chicks (Sempervivum species)
The small succulent called hens and chicks isn’t toxic. Some other succulents, like jade plants (Crassula species), can be toxic to dogs and cats.
Majesty palm (Ravenea rivularis), parlor palm (Chamaedorea elegans)
Always look up palm species to be sure they’re safe. Majesty, parlor, and several other types of palm are safe for dogs and cats, but sago palm (Cycas and Zamia species) can be deadly.
Phalaenopsis or moth orchid (Phalaenopsis species)
Spider or ribbon plant (Chlorophytum comosum)
Zebra haworthia (Haworthiopsis species)
The zebra plant looks similar to aloe (Aloe vera) but is safer for dogs and cats. Aloe can cause vomiting and diarrhea.
Public domain photo of Phalaenopsis or moth orchids by Bob Burch on Flickr
Any dog might need to wear a muzzle at some point. Muzzle training makes wearing a muzzle stress-free and even fun for the dog. Resources for training a dog to love a muzzle are linked at the end of this article.
Why Dogs Wear Muzzles
Muzzles can be incredibly useful. Wearing a muzzle doesn’t necessarily mean that a dog is aggressive. A muzzle is just another tool to help keep dogs and people safe. These are some of the many reasons a dog might use a muzzle:
Choosing a Muzzle
The type of muzzle to look for is a basket muzzle. Correctly fitted basket muzzles don’t hold a dog’s mouth shut, so a dog wearing a basket muzzle can pant, drink water, and take treats.
Don’t buy a cloth muzzle like the ones sometimes used for dog grooming and veterinary procedures. Cloth muzzles keep the dog’s mouth closed, so these muzzles are not safe for dogs to wear for more than a few minutes and can also be stressful for dogs.
Basket muzzles come in various styles, materials, and colors. Some are made of flexible rubber; muzzles made of wire offer more bite protection. Muzzles for specific breeds (like greyhounds) and custom-made muzzles for dogs with hard-to-fit faces are also available.
The fit of the muzzle is crucial, so you’ll need to measure your dog’s face according to the manufacturer’s instructions. (Estimate the measurement if your dog might bite when his face is touched.) A basket muzzle should be long enough to avoid rubbing the tip of the nose but not so long that it hits the dog’s eyes, and it should be deep enough to let the dog open his mouth wide to pant. A basket muzzle deep enough to allow for full panting will probably look huge when the dog’s mouth is closed, but this is the correct fit.
The muzzle should have lots of openings for air flow. Some basket muzzles have large holes for treats; others have smaller gaps in front of the nose to keep dogs from eating things they shouldn’t.
Muzzle Training Basics
Dogs accept muzzles most readily if the training involves yummy treats and is done gradually over weeks. Dogs who are already afraid of muzzles need extra training steps and more time; don’t hesitate to seek help from a positive-reinforcement trainer.
Watch your dog’s body language throughout training to be sure she’s happy and relaxed. If at any point your dog avoids the muzzle, you’re moving too fast. Back up a couple of steps and proceed more slowly.
1. Arhant C, Schmied-Wagner C, Aigner U, Affenzeller N. Owner reports on use of muzzles and their effects on dogs; an online survey. J Vet Behav. 2021;41:73-81. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2020.07.006
Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
About two-thirds of cats respond to catnip. Catnip toys and catnip plants are safe for cats and can provide sensory stimulation and environmental enrichment for indoor cats.
Environmental enrichment means adding things to or changing an animal’s environment in ways that enhance the animal’s mental and physical well-being. An enriched environment lets animals express behaviors that are normal for their species and helps them cope with stress.
Environmental enrichment is used to improve the welfare of animals in zoos and shelters, and it can also help indoor cats be happier and healthier. Sensory enrichment is part of environmental enrichment, and catnip provides olfactory stimulation for cats that are attracted to it.
What is catnip?
Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is a perennial herb in the mint family. It can be grown in pots or planted in the garden, though like other mints it tends to be invasive if it’s not confined to a container.
The compound in catnip that appeals to cats is nepetalactone. Nepetalactone is a volatile substance, meaning that it forms a vapor. Cats that respond to catnip are attracted to its scent, not necessarily to its taste.
Some other plants contain nepetalactone and similar compounds. In a study published in 2017, most cats that didn’t respond to catnip were attracted to silver vine (Actinidia polygama). About half of the cats in the study responded to Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica) or valerian root (Valeriana officinalis).
How does catnip affect cats?
Cats’ reactions to catnip include sniffing and licking it, rubbing their faces in it, rolling in it, kicking it with the back feet, and drooling. The response lasts for about 5 to 15 minutes, after which the cat doesn’t respond to the plant for an hour or two.
Cats do not become addicted to catnip.[2,3] Nepetalactone works through the body’s opioid response system, likely providing a feel-good reward to cats that interact with catnip. Nepetalactone stimulates the opioid response system by increasing the release of natural endorphins, which probably explains why nepetalactone isn’t addicting like externally administered opiates (such as morphine) can be.
Why are cats attracted to catnip?
The catnip response is inherited. Some big cats, like leopards and jaguars (but not tigers), are also attracted to catnip. Breed, sex, and neutering status do not affect cats’ sensitivity to catnip, although the catnip response seems to increase as cats grow to adulthood. We don’t know why some cats but not others have catnip-sensitive genes or why other species don’t respond to catnip in the same way.
So why are cats sensitive to catnip at all? It would be very unusual for animals to have an innate (as opposed to learned) behavioral response that serves no biological purpose.
A study published in 2021 suggested that the catnip response could have evolved as a means of pest defense. This study showed that nepetalactol (a compound in silver vine similar to nepetalactone) repels mosquitoes when it’s applied to cats’ heads. The researchers observed cats’ interactions with nepetalactol samples and found that the cats showed rolling and face-rubbing behaviors only when the samples were within reach, not when the cats could smell the samples but not come in contact with them. After more tests, they concluded that the point of the catnip response is to transfer nepetalactol to the face and body to ward off mosquitoes.
Feel free to offer catnip to your cats if they enjoy it. Don’t rely on catnip for mosquito control, though! Mosquitoes transmit heartworms and other diseases, and catnip isn’t effective enough as a mosquito repellant to keep your cats safe.
1. Ellis SL. Environmental enrichment: practical strategies for improving feline welfare. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(11):901-912. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2009.09.011
2. Bol S, Caspers J, Buckingham L, et al. Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria). BMC Vet Res. 2017;13(1):70. doi:10.1186/s12917-017-0987-6
3. Uenoyama R, Miyazaki T, Hurst JL, et al. The characteristic response of domestic cats to plant iridoids allows them to gain chemical defense against mosquitoes. Sci Adv. 2021;7(4):eabd9135. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd9135
4. Ellis SL, Wells DL. The influence of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of cats housed in a rescue shelter. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2010;123:56-62. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2009.12.011
Photo by Madalyn Cox on Unsplash
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Dog bites are physically and emotionally traumatic and can also have serious consequences for the dog. National Dog Bite Prevention Week, the second full week of April, is a good time to learn more about dog bites.
Why do dogs bite?
Dogs bite as an instinctive response to provocation. Even friendly, tolerant dogs can bite under the wrong circumstances. A dog might bite a person in situations like these:
Which dog breeds are likely to bite?
Trick question! Any dog can bite if provoked.
Assuming that a dog is aggressive because of its breed is unfair to responsible dog owners and (in the case of breed bans) potentially unsafe for the dog. It’s even more dangerous to assume that a dog won’t bite because it looks like a breed people think of as “friendly.” It’s almost impossible to tell the breed heritage of a mixed-breed dog just by appearance anyway.
A dog’s body language and facial expressions are better indicators of bite risk than its (apparent) breed is. These cues can be subtle, but learning to tell if dogs are feeling anxious, afraid, or aggressive can help keep you safe.
Who’s at risk of being bitten?
At least half of the people bitten by dogs in the United States each year are children, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association. Older adults are also at higher risk. Most people with dog bites are bitten by their own dog or another dog they’re familiar with.
How can I keep myself and my kids from being bitten?
These measures can reduce the risk:
What can dog owners do?
Socialize puppies and newly adopted dogs so they’ll be comfortable with different people and new situations. Dogs who are well socialized are less likely to feel nervous or threatened when they encounter new people and unfamiliar environments. Obedience training using positive reinforcement also builds trust between dogs and their owners.
Be sure your dog’s rabies vaccination is up to date. Monitor your dog’s health; pain and illness reduce a dog’s tolerance for being touched and handled.
Don’t let your dog run free outdoors, and follow your local leash laws. If your dog is nervous around unfamiliar people, be sure he has a place to get away from visitors to your home.
Photo by Ralu Gal
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Socialization helps dogs become comfortable with new people, animals, and situations. It’s especially crucial for puppies and newly adopted dogs. Socializing dogs requires a little creativity during a pandemic, but you can still make sure they have the experiences they need to be well-adjusted pets.
The best age to socialize puppies is up to about 3 months. Very young pups consider everything they encounter to be a normal part of life, so they’re not likely to be afraid of these things later on. After 3 to 4 months of age, their brains are less receptive to new experiences and their fear responses increase. Puppies that don’t receive adequate early socialization sometimes grow into adult dogs with fearful, anxious, or aggressive behaviors that could land them in a shelter.
Adult dogs also benefit from socialization and training. Newly adopted dogs need consistency and routine to help them settle into their new homes. Carefully exposing dogs to things that worry them, with plenty of positive reinforcement and professional help if necessary, can help them manage their fears. As always, contact your veterinarian if your dog is especially fearful or has had changes in behavior.
Here are some things you can do to enrich your dog's environment during times of physical distancing.
Give your dog toys that engage all of the senses: sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. Rotate the toys so your dog doesn’t get bored. Let your dog explore different areas of the house under supervision.
Let young puppies interact safely with everyday objects, especially ones that move or make noise: brooms, umbrellas, pots and pans, blenders, vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers, bicycles, and so forth. Play music. Let your puppy play on different surfaces, like wood, carpet, pillows on the floor, slick surfaces, gravel, concrete, and grass.
Wear hats, sunglasses, and your pandemic face covering—not necessarily all at the same time—in front of your puppy. Move the furniture around to help your pup get used to changes in the environment.
Give dogs and puppies practice spending time alone to help prevent separation anxiety when you have to leave. Use positive reinforcement to teach your new dog or puppy that their crate is a safe space.
Sit outside with your dog or puppy and watch people go by. Is the neighbor using a leaf blower? Fabulous—this is a great opportunity to teach a young pup that loud sounds are OK. (If your dog is afraid of the sound, don’t push this! The point is to get puppies used to noises before they develop noise anxiety, not to force a fearful dog to sit through something scary.)
Take your dog on walks. The more people, other dogs, and noisy vehicles a puppy encounters before 3 months of age, the better. Adult dogs also need the sensory stimulation they get from walks. Maintain physical distance from other people during the pandemic; the CDC recommends keeping dogs at least 6 feet away from people who aren’t in their own household.
Go for car rides, gradually increasing your dog’s time in the car. If your pet has motion sickness or car anxiety, contact your veterinarian.
Dogs that are used to being handled are less stressed than others at the veterinary clinic. Prepare your puppy for future veterinary visits by using positive reinforcement while touching his paws, ears, tail, and belly. On behalf of clinic staff everywhere, I beg you to get your puppy comfortable with foot handling while he’s young. Contact your veterinary clinic for advice if your dog has trouble with nail trims at home.
Socializing Dogs During COVID-19 (American Veterinary Medical Association): https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/animal-health-and-welfare/covid-19/socializing-dogs-during-covid-19
Socializing Your Puppy During the COVID-19 Pandemic (University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center): https://www.vmc.umn.edu/sites/vmc.umn.edu/files/puppy_socializing_during_covid19.pdf
1. American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior. AVSAB position statement on puppy socialization. 2008. Accessed September 4, 2020. https://avsab.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Puppy_Socialization_Position_Statement_Download_-_10-3-14.pdf
2. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): if you have pets. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated June 28, 2020. Accessed September 4, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/pets.html
Photo by Alvan Nee
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Giving medication to cats is not always as simple as giving it to dogs. Unfortunately, this means that cats might not receive all of their medication, and some might not get any medication at all. If you have trouble giving your cat pills, tell your veterinarian. Together you can find a way for your cat to get the treatment she needs.
Try It in Food
If the medication can be given with food (check with your veterinarian), try hiding the first dose in something tasty to see if your cat is willing to take it this way. Use a small amount of food that your cat loves or a soft cat treat. Offer the bite of food containing the medication when your cat is hungry; don’t just leave a pill in the middle of a bowl of food.
Using food to administer medication can cause food aversion and reduced food intake in some cats, says the American Association of Feline Practitioners. If your cat doesn’t readily eat the first dose in food, don’t keep trying this method. Never force food into your cat’s mouth. Some medications are bitter and most cats won’t eat pills on their own, so be prepared to try something else.
Give It by Hand
For many cats, manual administration is the quickest and surest way to give pills. This technique is easier to show than to describe. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has an excellent video series demonstrating how to give a pill to a cat with your fingers or with a pill gun. (A pill gun is a tube with a soft tip and a plunger that lets you place pills onto your cat’s tongue without putting your fingers in the mouth.) The videos are at this link: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzf8tGKj10zzg6Unhw4QZrqcvJZ1amkax
Here are some tips:
Try a Different Form of Medication
It can be very difficult to give a tablet to a cat who doesn’t want it. Some medications come in liquid form. Here is the Cornell video series showing how to give liquid medication to a cat: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzf8tGKj10zxJYert-yKU0B3cUpkH5Y0Z
Compounding pharmacies can make some medications into flavored liquids, chewable soft treats, and other forms that cats might accept more easily. A few medications can be made into ointments that are applied to the skin (usually inside the ear), although this delivery method doesn’t work for all medications. Talk to your veterinarian if you’d like to pursue these other options.
You can find more ideas in these articles:
Giving your cat medication. American Association of Feline Practitioners. Accessed August 21, 2020. https://catfriendly.com/cat-care-at-home/giving-cat-medication/
Giving your cat oral medications. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. Accessed August 21, 2020. https://www.vet.cornell.edu/hospitals/pharmacy/consumer-clinical-care-guidelines-animals/giving-your-cat-oral-medications
Medicating your cat. University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. Accessed August 21, 2020. https://www.vet.upenn.edu/docs/default-source/ryan/ryan-behavior-medicine/medicating-your-cat-(pdf).pdf
Photo by Paul Hanaoka
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The contents of this blog are for information only and should not substitute for advice from a veterinarian who has examined the animal. All blog content is copyrighted by Mallard Creek Animal Hospital and may not be copied, reproduced, transmitted, or distributed without permission.