Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Indoor cats need mental stimulation and physical activity to stay happy and healthy. Playing games with your cat and providing cat-appropriate toys can make life better—and more fun—for both of you.
When and How Long to Play
Always let your cat choose whether and when to play. Cats might nip when they’re overexcited or want to stop interacting, so watch your cat’s body language (for example, pinning the ears back or twitching the tail) and be ready to end the session before things go too far.
When you’re petting your cat, remove your hand every minute or so and watch her reaction. If she ignores you or walks away, it’s time to stop. If she rubs her head against your hand, she probably wants more head or face petting. Some cats are overstimulated by being touched for very long on the lower back near the tail and prefer to be petted on the front half of the body.
The ideal length of a play session probably depends on the individual cat. The results of a 2014 cat owner survey showed a possible link between the length of play sessions and cat problem behaviors: owners who played with their cats for at least 5 minutes at a time reported fewer problem behaviors than those who played for 1 minute at a time. However, the survey didn’t show whether longer play resulted in fewer problem behaviors or whether owners just didn’t engage as much with cats who had behavior issues.
To choose toys and games for your cat, start by thinking like a cat. Cats are born hunters, and even cats living the good life indoors need to be able to act on their natural instincts. Cats play by acting out predator behaviors:
The toys you provide should allow your cat to perform all of the instinctive predator behaviors. Cats tend to like moving objects they can stalk, which is why your feet might be a target. Try a variety of toys that mimic the movements of prey animals like rodents and birds. These can include toy mice, balls, toys dangling from the end of a wand, or toys pulled on a string. Of course, don’t leave strings or toys your cat can swallow within your cat’s reach when you’re not there to supervise.
Cats can become frustrated if they can’t catch what they’re chasing. If you use a laser pointer, hide a treat for your cat to find after stalking the moving light. (And don’t point the light into your cat’s face.) Balls inside circular tracks might not be attractive to some cats because they can’t capture, hold, or bite them.
Cats get bored with their toys, so don’t leave the same toys out every day. Rotate your cat’s toys to keep her mind stimulated.
You don’t have to buy a lot of cat toys to play with your cat. Paper bags, boxes, crumpled paper balls, and socks all make great toys. Think about engaging all of your cat’s senses with objects that look, smell, taste, sound, and feel different from each other.
For more ideas for toys and enrichment for indoor cats, check these resources:
1. Delgado M. Do cats have petting preferences? Yes! Cats and Squirrels website. December 29, 2014. Accessed March 19, 2020. http://catsandsquirrels.com/pettingprefs/
2. Strickler BL, Shull EA. An owner survey of toys, activities, and behavior problems in indoor cats. J Vet Behav. 2014;9:207-214.
3. Playing with your cat. International Cat Care. July 30, 2018. Accessed March 19, 2020. https://icatcare.org/advice/playing-with-your-cat/
Photo by Kim Davies
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Coronaviruses cause disease in many animal species. Most coronaviruses affect either the respiratory tract or the digestive system. Some coronaviruses cause no symptoms or only mild illnesses like the common cold. Others cause serious disease.
New information continues to emerge about SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At this time (early March 2020), there is no evidence that this virus can spread between humans and companion animals like dogs and cats.
For updated information about COVID-19, see these resources:
Coronaviruses got their name from spike proteins that cover the surface of the virus particles and look like a crown (corona in Latin) on electron microscopy images. Coronavirus spike proteins bind to receptors on the host animal’s cells and allow the virus particles to fuse with the cells. Spike proteins and the receptors they target vary according to the type of coronavirus.
Because animal species don’t all have the same molecular receptors and different coronaviruses have different surface proteins, coronaviruses tend to be species specific. A coronavirus that causes disease in cows, for example, doesn’t normally cause disease in cats. This is also why your dogs don’t catch your cold even if you sneeze in their faces.
Some coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and humans. Coronaviruses jump to a new host species through genetic mutation. Mutation changes the virus proteins and creates a genetically different coronavirus that can infect a different host. Jumping to a new species might also be easier if the molecular receptors in the new host species are similar to those of the original host species.
Coronavirus infections in livestock and companion animals can be severe. However, until 2002, coronaviruses usually caused only mild disease in people with fully functioning immune systems. In 2002, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, and in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged. Both of these outbreaks were caused by coronaviruses thought to have begun as bat viruses. Bats and people don’t have much contact, so the viruses that caused SARS and MERS spread to people through intermediate hosts: civets for SARS and camels for MERS. COVID-19 is the third coronavirus disease to cause serious outcomes in humans.
Animal Diseases Caused by Coronaviruses
Diseases caused by coronaviruses have been identified in many mammal and bird species. Some examples of coronaviruses that cause serious disease in livestock are transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in piglets, infectious bronchitis virus in chickens, and bovine coronavirus in cows.
The coronaviruses of most concern in cats and dogs are feline coronavirus, canine coronavirus, and canine respiratory coronavirus. Feline coronavirus usually causes such mild symptoms they aren’t noticed at all. In some cats, though, infection leads to feline infectious peritonitis, a devastating disease that is nearly always fatal. (Feline infectious peritonitis will be covered in more detail in another article.) Canine coronavirus is passed through the feces and causes vomiting and diarrhea, especially in groups of dogs in kennels and animal shelters. Infection usually carries a low risk of death, but a more severe strain of canine coronavirus can be fatal to dogs. Canine respiratory coronavirus is one of the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease (kennel cough).
The emergence of SARS and MERS in humans prompted more research into coronaviruses, so new therapies for coronavirus diseases may be available in the future.
1. Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019;17(3):181-192.
2. Coronaviruses. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Updated March 2, 2020. Accessed March 5, 2020. https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/coronaviruses
3. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1282:1-23.
4. Decaro N, Buonavoglia C. Canine coronavirus: not only an enteric pathogen. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2011;41(6):1121-1132.
Image source: https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=15523
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Mast cell tumors are common in dogs and somewhat common in cats. In dogs, mast cell tumors are usually lumps on or under the skin. Mast cell tumors in cats can affect the skin or the internal organs.
Mast cells are a normal part of the immune system. They are most often found in the skin, digestive tract, and other areas that are exposed to substances from the environment. Mast cells are full of granules that contain histamine and other chemicals that are released as part of allergic and inflammatory responses. You’ve seen mast cells in action yourself: the itchy lump you get after a mosquito bite is caused by mast cells in the skin releasing histamine and other substances. Mast cell tumors are cancerous growths made up of mast cells.
Signs in Dogs
Mast cell tumors are most common in older dogs but occur in dogs of all ages. Dogs of any breed can develop mast cell tumors. Breeds at higher risk than others include retrievers, shar-peis, and brachycephalic (flat-faced) breeds like boxers, pugs, and Boston terriers.
In dogs, mast cell tumors can look similar to other conditions. Some look and feel just like benign fatty lumps. Mast cell tumors in dogs vary in appearance and behavior. A mast cell tumor might be a smooth, round, raised skin lump; a red, itchy lump; or a soft lump under the skin. Some are solitary growths, and some are clusters of lumps or small bumps. Some grow very slowly, with no apparent change for months; others grow quickly. Mast cell tumors sometimes get bigger (or pinker or itchier) and then return to their normal appearance. This change happens when they release histamine. More serious effects of histamine release include decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in the stool, and collapse.[1,2]
Signs in Cats
Most cats with mast cell tumors are older, although an atypical form is most common in young cats. Siamese may be more likely than other cat breeds to have mast cell tumors.
In cats, the signs of mast cell tumors depend on their location (skin or internal organs) and the tumor subtype, which determines how aggressive they are. As in dogs, mast cell tumors in cats can mimic other conditions and do not all look and behave the same way. Mast cell tumors in the skin can be smooth, round growths or flat red patches, and they might grow quickly or very slowly. Mast cell tumors inside the body most often affect the spleen or digestive tract and can cause decreased activity, decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and other general signs of illness.[1,3]
Most mast cell tumors of the skin can be diagnosed during a veterinary appointment with a needle aspirate, in which a small sample of cells is removed with a needle and syringe and examined under a microscope. Because putting a needle in a mast cell tumor can cause histamine release, veterinarians often give an antihistamine when they aspirate a mast cell tumor.
A needle aspirate can show that a patient has a mast cell tumor, but it doesn’t give enough information to know the prognosis. Some mast cell tumors are single lumps that don’t spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Others are more invasive and have a high risk of spreading through the body. Currently the only way to know the grade or type of a mast cell tumor, and hence the prognosis, is by surgically removing all or part of the tumor and sending this biopsy sample to a laboratory for analysis.
Patients with high-grade or aggressive mast cell tumors, including cats with mast cell tumors in internal organs, benefit from further tests to find out whether the cancer has spread or is causing other problems. This workup can include blood and urine tests, lymph node aspiration, imaging (such as ultrasound or computed tomography), and bone marrow analysis. Whether to do these tests before or after biopsy depends on the patient and the tumor.
Surgical removal is recommended for most mast cell tumors and might be the only treatment (other than antihistamines) needed for low-grade mast cell tumors of the skin. Cancerous mast cells extend past the edges of the visible lump, so a wide area of normal-appearing skin around the tumor must be removed. The biopsy report indicates whether all of the tumor was removed during the procedure.
Chemotherapy, other medications, and radiation therapy are available for patients with aggressive tumors, cancer in internal organs, tumors in areas where wide removal isn’t possible, or tumors that aren’t completely removed during surgery. Your veterinarian is likely to recommend referral to an oncologist if your pet might need these types of treatment.
The prognosis is good for patients with mast cell tumors that haven’t spread and are completely removed with surgery, radiation therapy, or both. These patients sometimes develop another mast cell tumor later, so all new lumps warrant a visit to the veterinarian. For patients with other types of mast cell tumor, the prognosis depends on tumor grade, location, and response to treatment.
1. Blackwood L, Murphy S, Buracco P, et al. European consensus document on mast cell tumours in dogs and cats. Vet Comp Oncol. 2012;10(3):e1-e29. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5829.2012.00341.x
2. Couto CG. Mast cell tumors: to cut or not to cut. Paper presented at: 2018 Michigan Veterinary Conference; January 26-28, 2018; Lansing, Michigan. Accessed February 14, 2020. https://www.michvma.org/resources/Documents/MVC/2018%20Proceedings/couto_04.pdf
3. Henry C, Herrera C. Mast cell tumors in cats: clinical update and possible new treatment avenues. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(1):41-47.
Photo by JC Gellidon
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Tooth resorption is a potentially painful dental problem that is common in adult cats and occasionally affects dogs. The condition gets worse over time and can involve many teeth or only a single tooth root. Animals with tooth resorption and mouth pain might not have any obvious symptoms.
Tooth resorption is the process of tooth breakdown and reabsorption by the body. Tooth root resorption is normal in baby teeth. Think of how a baby tooth looks after it falls out: it has a jagged edge instead of long roots. Its roots were resorbed as the permanent tooth moved into its place. If its roots had not been resorbed, the baby tooth would stay in the mouth instead of falling out to make room for the permanent tooth.
For reasons that are still unclear, many cats experience abnormal resorption of adult teeth. Resorption of adult teeth can affect only the roots or both the roots and the crown (the visible part of the tooth above the gumline). Resorption is not the same as cavities, which are rare in cats and dogs.
Tooth resorption in adult teeth usually begins with the loss of a small amount of the hard outer tooth surface at or below the gumline. Resorption progresses until it reaches the soft pulp at the center of the tooth. Another type of tooth resorption begins in the pulp and works its way outward. The process involves bone remodeling along with tooth destruction, and in the final stage the root mostly disappears and is replaced with bone.
Inflammation plays a part in tooth resorption, although whether inflammation causes resorption or resorption causes inflammation is not known. In any case, many cats with tooth resorption also have gingivitis or more severe inflammation in the mouth. Whether tooth resorption is painful depends on the degree of inflammation, location of the resorbed area (above or below the gumline), stage of resorption, and presence of other problems like infection.
Tooth resorption is very often a hidden condition that isn’t found until a cat is under anesthesia for a dental procedure and has dental radiographs (x-ray images) taken. Cats and dogs can have mouth pain with very subtle or no symptoms of discomfort. Gingivitis is sometimes a sign of underlying tooth resorption.
Animals with tooth resorption might have these symptoms:
Tooth resorption is diagnosed with dental imaging (radiographs or computed tomography) and a full oral examination that includes probing around all sides of the teeth. These procedures require general anesthesia or at least deep sedation. Examination of a cooperative awake patient can reveal resorption that affects the crown, but it won’t show resorption of tooth roots.
Currently the only effective treatment for tooth resorption is extraction of the affected teeth. If the tooth roots have already been replaced by bone, only the crown of the tooth might need to be removed. Decisions about whether to extract, when to extract, and how much tooth to extract are based on how the teeth look on radiographs and whether the condition is likely to be painful. Medical treatments like antibiotics and steroids don’t stop tooth resorption.
Tooth resorption can’t be prevented because the cause isn’t known. The best way to catch the problem is with regular dental care, including an oral examination and radiographs under anesthesia as recommended by a veterinarian.
1. AVDC nomenclature: tooth resorption. American Veterinary Dental College website. https://avdc.org/avdc-nomenclature/. Accessed January 31, 2020.
2. Reiter AM. Tooth resorption in small animals. Merck Veterinary Manual website. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/digestive-system/dentistry/tooth-resorption-in-small-animals. Updated May 2014. Accessed January 31, 2020.
3. Smith MM. Tooth resorption in cats: don’t think you know; know you know! In: VMX 2020 Proceedings: Small Animal & Exotics, Book 1. Orlando, FL: North American Veterinary Community; 2020.
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The anal sacs, or anal glands, are a pair of small sacs located under the skin on each side of the anus of dogs and cats. These sacs contain smelly material that is normally squeezed out when an animal passes stool. If your dog is scooting his bottom across the floor, he might have an impacted (clogged) anal sac.
Anal Sac Anatomy
Anal sacs lie between the anal sphincter muscles, the circular muscles that close the anus. Each sac has a small duct that leads to an opening in the skin next to the anus. Anal sac material is liquid or pasty in consistency, ranges in color from cream to brown, and has a characteristic fishy odor.
The function of anal sacs is not entirely clear but might have to do with scent marking and communication.
Symptoms of Anal Sac Problems
Dogs and cats with anal sac disorders have symptoms of anal discomfort (these are more common in dogs):
Other problems, like parasites, fleas, and orthopedic pain, can cause some of the same symptoms.
Types of Anal Sac Disorders
The most common anal sac problem by far is impaction, in which an anal sac can’t empty on its own and material remains in the sac. Scooting the bottom on the floor and licking the anal area are typical symptoms. Impaction happens more often in small dogs than in large dogs or cats. The causes of impaction are not fully known. Many dogs go through their entire lives without ever having impacted anal sacs; others experience it regularly. Allergies, skin disease, and changes in stool consistency might make a dog more likely to have clogged anal sacs.
Impacted anal sacs can become inflamed, a condition called anal sacculitis. Anal sacculitis causes painful, swollen sacs and often redness of the skin around the anus.
Infected anal sacs can form abscesses. An anal sac abscess first appears as a painful swelling beside the anal opening. It may rupture through a skin wound that drains pus or blood next to the anus.
Anal gland tumors are less common than impaction, inflammation, or infection. They can cause swelling, bleeding, or discomfort in the anal area.
Veterinarians usually manage an impacted anal sac by gently expressing the material out of the sac. This process can be uncomfortable for the patient, especially if the material is too thick or dry to be easily removed. Some patients benefit from anal sac flushes or warm compresses applied to the anal area. Anal sac inflammation and infection are typically treated with antibiotics and pain relievers. The anal sacs can be surgically removed in patients with anal sac cancer or as a last resort for patients with other anal sac problems. (Surgical removal is not generally recommended for patients with simple anal sac impaction because of the possibility of complications after surgery.)
What You Should Do
If your dog or cat doesn’t have any symptoms of anal sac trouble and your veterinarian hasn’t found a problem, you don’t need to do anything in particular. There’s no need to change your pet’s diet or have the anal sacs expressed if they’re working normally. But be aware of the signs of anal sac impaction so you can have this uncomfortable problem taken care of before it becomes more painful for your pet.
Photo by Sheri Hooley
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Acupuncture, the technique of stimulating points on the body by inserting tiny needles through the skin, is being used more frequently to treat animals. Most scientific studies of acupuncture have been conducted in humans. However, the existing evidence in animals led the American Animal Hospital Association and American Association of Feline Practitioners to endorse acupuncture as a treatment option for chronic pain.
Anna Ponce, DVM, and I recently sat down to chat about acupuncture in pets. Dr Ponce provides acupuncture services for dogs and cats and has completed the coursework and examination requirements for certification in veterinary acupuncture. (Interview has been edited for length and flow.)
LAW: How did you decide to start doing acupuncture?
AP: My biggest push to learn acupuncture was having geriatric cats come in with arthritis. Some of them have kidney disease, and there is just no good long-term arthritis medication for these cats. Acupuncture is one of the modalities that has been mentioned, so I decided to explore that avenue and see what I could do to help arthritic cats. And that really opened my eyes to so much more that can be done with acupuncture.
What conditions do you think acupuncture helps the most?
It can really help with any condition: heart disease, kidney disease, coughing, behavioral issues, anxiety. But I think what we know it most commonly for is arthritis.
Which patients do you recommend it for, and how does it help them?
For example, this morning I recommended it for a dog that has arthritis in her knees, elbows, back, and hips. She’s had x-rays, so we know arthritis is there. It took a long time to get her on the right combination of drugs to be comfortable, but she still has off days and I absolutely think she would benefit from acupuncture.
Acupuncture has local effects like decreasing inflammation and pain, and it also helps get the body back in balance. Chronic issues are obviously going to take more time. Acupuncture is not going to make these issues disappear. It doesn’t miraculously make degenerative joint disease return to normal, but it definitely helps the pain and inflammation. [It helps the body release] serotonin, endogenous opioids, and beta endorphins. In my opinion, there’s not a pet that can’t benefit from acupuncture, even if it’s as a preventive measure.
When would you not recommend it?
I wouldn’t not recommend it for just about any patient, but the biggest consideration is whether the patient will tolerate acupuncture. Some dogs and cats fall asleep, they snore, they love their acupuncture, they look forward to it, they’re very relaxed. And then some patients are just not going to tolerate having needles placed in them.
You would not want to put a needle through infected skin. You wouldn’t want to put a needle in a tumor because it would increase blood supply to that area. Certain points are contraindicated in pregnant dogs to avoid inducing labor. And you would not do electroacupuncture [delivery of electrical current through acupuncture needles] in a dog with seizures. But other than that it’s very safe. There’s really not a patient that I would say should not get it. It’s a matter of whether they tolerate it, which I feel most of them do.
How do cats handle it?
I have one cat patient who is very good for his acupuncture. He tells me when he’s had enough needles, so he dictates how many needles he gets. When he starts to meow a little bit and get a little twitchy, we’ve reached our limit, and then he walks into his carrier, lies down, and rests there [with the needles inserted]. Another cat that I treated really enjoyed it and just lay there the entire time, comfortable.
Can you describe a typical acupuncture session?
We use very tiny sterile needles that go in acupuncture points throughout the body. The needles are even smaller than insulin needles. I do a traditional Chinese exam along with my Western exam, make my traditional Chinese diagnosis, and pick acupuncture points based on that. A session might include 5 to 40 needles, depending on what I’m treating; it’s normally 10 to 20 needles. The time patients sit with the needles inserted could be anywhere from 10 to 40 minutes.
Placement of the needles is based on meridians through which qi (chi), or energy, flows and where acupuncture points are located. The strongest points tend to be on the limbs, but those can also be more tender points for dogs and cats. So we often use more points on the back because they’re easier to access and they tend to not be quite as sensitive as the points on the limbs. When a needle’s inserted it causes a de-qi response, essentially a tingling or warming sensation, and sometimes a muscle twitch.
I also use different modalities. Dry needling is insertion of the tiny needles. In electroacupuncture, we hook up electrodes to get higher stimulation. In aquapuncture, we inject vitamin B12 under the skin at acupuncture points to get a longer effect.
How do you integrate acupuncture with Western medicine?
I believe that they complement one another. I think that acupuncture can benefit the patient in ways that Western medicine can’t, especially with end-of-life comfort and pain relief. I definitely wouldn’t throw out Western diagnostics. Bloodwork and x-rays are very important and can help tailor your acupuncture treatment. I think the best type of medicine is an integrative approach, having them work together.
Would you describe your acupuncture training?
You have to be a licensed veterinarian to practice acupuncture [in animals], but you do not have to have a certification in acupuncture to practice it. Being certified shows that you have gone through the training and that you know what you’re doing.
I took a 6-month course through the Chi Institute [of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine] in Florida. The course is 150 credit hours in 5 sessions: 2 online lecture sessions and 3 on-site sessions including lectures and a hands-on lab. After you complete the sessions you take a 200-question written exam and a practical exam. The final requirements for certification are a 30-hour internship with a certified veterinary acupuncturist and submission of a case study of a patient that you have followed for at least 3 months. I’ve done all of the coursework and the test. Once my internship hours are finished and my case study has been approved, I’ll get my certification.
1. Epstein ME, Rodan I, Griffenhagen G, et al. 2015 AAHA/AAFP pain management guidelines for dogs and cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2015;17(3):251-272.
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
It can be fun to choose cute winter wear for your dog (and we love seeing the adorable sweaters on dogs coming into the clinic!). But does your dog really need winter clothing? It depends.
Dogs do not all have the same tolerance for low temperatures. Dogs in the same household might have completely different attitudes about going outdoors in winter, so pay attention to your dog’s preferences and use common sense.
Which Dogs Need Winter Clothing?
Outdoor temperature, weather conditions, length of time outdoors, and level of activity (a leisurely stroll around the block versus a 5-mile run) all affect a dog’s need for extra protection. Also take the following dog-specific factors into account.
Type of Fur
Some dogs’ natural coats are like a puffer jacket; others are more akin to a thin T-shirt. The length of the hair isn’t the only consideration. Dogs with thick undercoats, or double coats, are better protected against the cold than those with single coats. Golden retrievers and Maltese both have long hair, but goldens stay warmer—and shed a lot more—because of their double coat. Goldens are also bigger than Maltese, which brings us to the next point.
Size of the Dog
In general, small dogs like Chihuahuas and toy poodles don’t handle cold weather as well as large dogs like retrievers and shepherds. This partly depends on the individual dog, but little dogs lose heat more easily than big dogs because their body surface area is higher relative to their weight.
Age and Health Status
Young puppies, senior dogs, and dogs with health problems (arthritis, endocrine disorders like hypothyroidism, and so forth) have a harder time maintaining their body temperature in cold weather than healthy adult dogs do.
Breeds that were developed to live in cold climates (like Newfoundlands and Bernese mountain dogs) are obviously better equipped for winter weather than greyhounds and the hairless breeds. Some breeds (and individual dogs) are just better acclimated to cold weather than others.
Signs That Your Dog Needs a Coat
Watch your dog for signs of discomfort in the cold:
If your dog has significant shivering or reluctance to move that doesn’t improve soon after coming inside to warm up, take him to a veterinary clinic to be checked for hypothermia. (Hypothermia is unlikely to happen in dogs in the Charlotte area who are outdoors under direct supervision for a reasonable length of time. It can affect dogs left outside in cold weather without adequate shelter.) Clothing is not a substitute for warm shelter.
Which Dogs Shouldn’t Wear Clothes?
Dogs can overheat if they’re wearing a coat they don’t need. There’s a reason sled dogs don’t wear parkas while they’re running the Iditarod. These dogs don’t need to be wearing clothes:
How to Choose Dog Clothing
Sweaters, jackets, and coats should fit closely enough not to drag on the ground or become tangled around the dog’s legs. However, clothing shouldn’t be tight around the neck or restrict the dog’s movement. Clothing should have no loose hanging bits that could get snagged on something or that the dog might chew. Dog clothing shouldn’t get in the way of urination and defecation (most dog coats are open under the belly and tail). Choose materials that are appropriate for the weather and easy to clean. And if your dog hates his clothes, don’t force the issue. Introduce new clothing gradually and try different materials and fits if you need to.
See more cold weather safety tips here: https://www.mallardcreekvet.com/dr-waldens-blog/cold-weather-safety-for-pets.
Photo by Rebecca Johnson, DVM
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
Kennel cough, the common term for canine infectious respiratory disease (or infectious tracheobronchitis), is a contagious disease that causes a hacking cough. The infection spreads quickly among dogs. Kennel cough is usually a mild illness, but some dogs develop more serious disease.
Many bacteria and viruses cause canine infectious respiratory disease. Most dogs with the disease are infected with more than 1 organism at the same time.[1,2] Some of the organisms involved are the following:
Not all dogs get sick after being exposed to an agent that can cause respiratory disease. Some of these organisms are unlikely to cause illness on their own but can cause symptoms when combined with other organisms. Whether a dog develops respiratory disease is also affected by environmental factors (such as crowding and poor ventilation) and the dog’s immune system.
Kennel cough spreads through respiratory secretions from an infected dog. Dogs with no symptoms at all can spread the infection. Droplets containing bacteria or viruses become airborne after a dog coughs or sneezes and are deposited on surfaces, water bowls, toys, and other objects. The higher the number of dogs housed together, the higher the chance of a dog coming into contact with infected respiratory secretions.
Crowding increases stress, which reduces a dog’s protective immune response against infection. Some infectious agents can hinder the immune response, making infection with additional organisms more likely.
Bordetella bronchiseptica can infect cats and possibly humans. Infection in humans is probably of most concern in people with impaired immune function.
Because of the variety of organisms and differences in individual dogs, symptoms can vary. Typical symptoms of the mild form of disease include the following:
Some dogs, especially young puppies, elderly dogs, and dogs with poor immune function, develop more severe bronchitis and pneumonia. These dogs have more serious symptoms:
For dogs with mild disease, kennel cough is usually presumed from physical examination findings and history of exposure to other dogs. Dogs with a persistent cough or signs of more serious disease need diagnostic testing, which can include chest radiographs, blood tests, and (in some cases) tests to identify the organisms involved.
Treatment decisions are based on the severity of the illness and the dog’s environment. Mild cases of kennel cough often resolve on their own, so dogs with mild disease might need only supportive care (good nutrition, limited activity, and a warm place to rest indoors). Some dogs benefit from treatment with an antibiotic active against Bordetella. Most dogs with kennel cough should not receive cough suppressants. Dogs with more severe disease need more intensive treatment. The treatment for dogs in an environment with a high risk of disease spread (like a shelter) may be different from the treatment chosen for a pet living at home.
Vaccines help control canine infectious respiratory disease. No single vaccine can entirely prevent kennel cough, but vaccinations protect dogs against some of the organisms and reduce the severity and spread of disease.
A combination vaccine including canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, and sometimes canine parainfluenza virus is recommended for all dogs. Puppies receive this vaccine as part of the puppy vaccine series. Adult dogs should have booster vaccinations (or antibody titer tests).
A vaccine against Bordetella bronchiseptica, sometimes also including canine parainfluenza virus, is recommended for dogs whose lifestyle puts them at risk for infection. The Bordetella vaccine is given in the nose, in the mouth, or by injection, depending on the formulation. Vaccines against canine influenza virus are also available. The decision to give a dog Bordetella and flu vaccines depends on the dog’s lifestyle and possibly on geographic area. Talk to your veterinarian about these vaccines if your dog goes to boarding kennels, doggie daycare, dog parks, dog shows, groomers, shelters, or other areas where dogs gather.
Because infectious respiratory disease is so contagious, dogs with symptoms should be kept away from other dogs as much as possible. Washing hands, bowls, dog toys, and clothing can reduce the risk of spreading the infection to other dogs.
1. Schulz BS, Kurz S, Weber K, Balzer HJ, Hartmann K. Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections. Vet J. 2014;201(3):365-369.
2. Hurley K, Aziz C. Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) - diagnosis and treatment; prevention and management. Pacific Veterinary Conference 2015. Veterinary Information Network website. https://www.vin.com/doc/?id=6789809. Accessed December 6, 2019.
3. Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC, a.k.a. “kennel cough”). University of Wisconsin-Madison Shelter Medicine website. https://www.uwsheltermedicine.com/library/resources/canine-infectious-respiratory-disease-complex-a-k-a-kennel-cough. Published July 2015. Accessed December 6, 2019.
4. Kuehn NF. Tracheobronchitis in small animals. Merck Veterinary Manual website. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/respiratory-system/respiratory-diseases-of-small-animals/tracheobronchitis-in-small-animals. Accessed December 6, 2019.
5. 2017 AAHA canine vaccination guidelines. American Animal Hospital Association website. https://www.aaha.org/aaha-guidelines/vaccination-canine-configuration/vaccination-canine/. Published September 7, 2017. Updated February 3, 2018. Accessed December 6, 2019.
Photo by Hannah Lim
Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
It’s tempting to share some of the Thanksgiving feast with our pets. Not all human food is safe for dogs and cats, though. The best way to avoid a holiday trip to the emergency clinic is to give pets their usual food and keep table food out of their reach. If you (or your guests) do want to give your pets a little bit of holiday food, though, here are some suggestions that are fine for most dogs and cats.
Keep in mind a few rules of thumb. Don’t give them anything that’s dangerous to dogs and cats: fatty food, bones, raw meat, raw eggs, raisins, grapes, currants, onions, garlic, leeks, raw yeast dough, macadamia nuts, chocolate, and the sugar substitute xylitol. For more, see the posts on Thanksgiving safety for pets and human foods that are toxic to pets.
Unseasoned single-ingredient foods are safer than multiple-ingredient dishes because they’re less likely to contain hidden dangers like onion. Moderation is key; too much of any food can upset a pet’s stomach. And remember that these suggestions don’t apply to pets with food allergies or digestive problems.
A bite of cooked skinless, boneless turkey meat is safe for most dogs and cats. Keep portion size in mind; a 10-lb dog or cat does not need the same amount of turkey that a person would eat. Take these precautions:
Defatted turkey or chicken broth
Pan drippings and gravy are too high in fat for dogs and cats. But a spoonful or two of defatted broth is usually fine for dogs. Don’t give broth to your cat unless you can be absolutely sure it wasn’t made with onions, leeks, shallots, or garlic; try tuna juice instead.
Vegetables and fruits
Dogs like vegetables more than you might think. Avoid grapes, raisins, currants, veggies cooked with fat or butter, and vegetable casseroles (that green bean casserole with the crispy onions on top? no). Stick with plain veggies and fruits, either raw or cooked without seasoning. My own dogs highly recommend all of these:
A small piece of bread, cornbread, or biscuit is generally safe for dogs and cats. Keep unbaked dough out of their reach; raw yeast dough can cause ethanol poisoning. Watch for added fats and seasonings (no onion focaccia or garlic bread). A bite of plain bread is safer than dressing or stuffing, which is likely to contain fat, onion, and possibly raisins or currants. Also avoid store-bought baked goods that might contain artificial sweeteners like xylitol.
For pets eating prescription or limited-ingredient diets
The best approach for pets with medical needs or food allergies is to close them in a room away from the kitchen and dining area. Guests might not realize that these pets have dietary restrictions. If your pet is eating a special diet and you’d like to give treats, ask your veterinarian for safe options. Some prescription diet manufacturers have developed treats that are compatible with their diets.
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Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate the body’s rate of metabolism. The most common thyroid disease in cats is hyperthyroidism, or abnormally high thyroid hormone production. Hyperthyroidism has serious health effects for cats. This disease is rare in dogs.
Hyperthyroidism in cats is usually caused by a benign thyroid gland tumor that produces excess thyroid hormone. Malignant thyroid gland tumors are much less common but do occur in some cats.
Hyperthyroidism has become more common in cats over the last few decades. The disease now affects up to 10% of cats over 10 years old. The reasons for the increase in hyperthyroidism are unclear but might include genetics, substances in the environment, or dietary factors.
Thyroid hormones affect many body systems, so the signs can vary from cat to cat. However, some signs are fairly common in cats with hyperthyroidism. Weight loss in a cat with a good appetite is a classic sign of hyperthyroidism.
Cats with hyperthyroidism often have other disorders at the same time. Some of the most common are heart disease, high blood pressure, and kidney disease. The symptoms of these other conditions can overlap the symptoms of thyroid disease.
Signs of hyperthyroidism include the following:
Hyperthyroidism is diagnosed with a blood test for thyroid hormone level. Because thyroid disease is common in cats, many feline blood panels include a thyroid test. Your veterinarian might recommend routinely screening middle-aged and senior cats for hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, and other common diseases. Blood tests can detect some of these disorders before a cat has any symptoms. Your veterinarian is also likely to suggest thyroid testing if your cat is losing weight or has any other signs of hyperthyroidism.
In most cats, a test for a single type of thyroid hormone (thyroxine, or T4) is enough to diagnose hyperthyroidism. Sometimes additional thyroid hormone tests are needed for diagnosis.
Cats with suspected hyperthyroidism should have other blood tests and urinalysis to screen for conditions like kidney disease. Cats with thyroid disease also benefit from regular blood pressure monitoring. Your veterinarian might recommend imaging studies like radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, or echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart) to further assess the internal organs.
The goals of treatment are to return the cat’s thyroid function to normal, keep adverse effects of treatment to a minimum, and avoid lowering the thyroid hormone levels below the normal range (a condition called hypothyroidism). Untreated hyperthyroidism causes significant illness and can be life threatening.
Four treatment methods are currently available:
Radioactive iodine and surgery can potentially cure the disease. Medication and diet therapy must be continued for the rest of the cat’s life. Each of these treatment methods has benefits, adverse effects, and costs that must be taken into account for each individual cat. The cat’s overall health and other medical conditions also affect the choice of treatment. Discuss the options with your veterinarian so you can make an informed decision that works for your cat and your family.
Cats being treated for hyperthyroidism need regular monitoring to assess thyroid hormone levels and check for evidence of other diseases. The type and frequency of monitoring depend on the treatment method and the cat’s condition. Kidney disease is fairly common in cats with hyperthyroidism and sometimes doesn’t show up on laboratory tests until the thyroid function is under control, so kidney function is routinely checked in cats being treated for thyroid disease.
For More Information
Feline Hyperthyroidism (American Association of Feline Practitioners): https://catfriendly.com/feline-diseases/hyperthyroidism/
Hyperthyroidism in Cats (Cornell Feline Health Center): https://www.vet.cornell.edu/departments-centers-and-institutes/cornell-feline-health-center/health-information/feline-health-topics/hyperthyroidism-cats
1. Carney HC, Ward CR, Bailey SJ, et al. 2016 AAFP guidelines for the management of feline hyperthyroidism. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18(5):400-416.
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Laurie Anne Walden, DVM
The contents of this blog are for information only and should not substitute for advice from a veterinarian who has examined the animal. All blog content is copyrighted by Mallard Creek Animal Hospital and may not be copied, reproduced, transmitted, or distributed without permission.